1. P. Saenger, E. S. Hegerl, and J. D. S. Davie, eds., GlobalStatusofMangroveEcosystems, International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Commission on Ecology, Paper No. 3 (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1983), p. 33. This article was also published in the Environmentalist 3, no. 3, suppl. (1983): 40.
2. Sanit Aksornkoae, "Mangrove Habitat Degradation and Removal in Phauguga and Ban Don Bays, Thailand," TropicalCoastalAreaManagement 3, no. 1 (1988): 16. 3. Saenger et al., eds., pp. 9-16. 4. Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) is the collective effort to monitor the world environment in order to protect human health and preserve essen- tial natural resources. The coordination center for GEMS was established within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1975. 5. Saenger et al., eds., pp. 11-12. Supplementary references are listed under table 2.
6. For an introduction to mangrove ecosystems, see Lawrence S. Hamilton, UnderstandingMangroveEcosystems, an audiovisual slide-cassette illustrated script pro- gram (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1983). For geomorphological information, see B. Thom, "Mangrove Ecology-a Geomorphological Perspective," in MangroveEcosystemsinAustralia:Structure,Functions,andManagement, ed. B. F. Clough (Canberra: Au- stralia National University Press, 1982), pp. 3-17; and for mangrove ecology, see Samuel C. Snedaker and Jane G. Snedaker, eds., TheMangroveEcosystem:ResearchMethods (Paris: Unesco, on behalf of the Unesco/SCOR Working Group 60 on Man- grove Ecology, 1984).
7. A. E. Lugo and S. C. Snedaker, "The Ecology of Mangroves," AnnualReviewofEcologyandSystematics 5 (1974): 39-64. 8. C. H. Wharton, H. T. Odum, K. Ewel, M. Duever, A. Lugo, R. Boyt, J. Bartholomew, E. De Bellevue, S. Brown, M. Brown, and L. Duever, ForestedWetlandsofFlorida-TheirManagementandTheirUse, Final Report to Division of State Planning (Gainesville, Fla.: Center for Wetlands, February 1976), fig. 102, p. 192.
9. Lawrence S. Hamilton and Samuel C. Snedaker, eds., Handbook forMangroveAreaManagement (Honolulu: UNEP, and East-West Center, Environment and Policy Institute, 1984), p. 26. 10. Saenger et al., eds. (n. 1 above), pp. 31-32. 11. Lawrence S. Hamilton and D. H. Murphy, "Use and Management of Nipa Palm (NypaFruticans, Arecaceae): A Review," JournalofEconomicBotany 42, no. 2 (1988): 206-13. 12. Hamilton and Snedaker, eds., p. 2. 13. W. E. Odum, "Pathways of Energy Flow in a South Florida Estuary" (diss., University of Miami, Florida, 1970), as quoted by Cintron et al. (n. 14 below).
14. Gilberto Cintr6n, A. E. Lugo, Ramon Martinez, Barbara B. Cintr6n, and Luis Encarnacion, ImpactofOilintheTropicalMarineEnvironment, Technical Publication, Division of Marine Resources (Puerto Rico: Department of Natural Resources of Puerto Rico, 1981), p. 1. 15. Saenger et al., eds., pp. 47-49. 16. Hamilton and Snedaker, eds., p. 2. 17. Ibid., p. 1.
18. Ibid., p. 9. 19. Wharton et al. (n. 8 above), p. 234. 20. John Bardach, personal communication, 1987. 21. Bo Christensen, ManagementandUtilizationofMangrovesinAsiaandthePacific, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Environment Paper No. 3 (Rome: FAO, 1982). 22. Gilberto Cintr6n and Yara Schaeffer-Novell, ManagementofStressinMangroveSystems (document prepared for the workshop, "Coral Reef, Seagrass Beds and Man- groves: Their Interaction in the Coastal Zones of the Caribbean Workshop," Dickinson University, St. Croix, West Indies, May 24-30, 1982, Working paper, UNESCO/ W.I.L.-F.D.U./IOCARIBE).
23. Crispino A. Saclauso, "A Critique: Technical Consideration in the Use of Mangrove Areas for Aquaculture," Bakawan 5, no. 2 (1986): 6-8. 24. Lucia Colorzano, "Sources of Pollution and Principal Polluted Areas in the Pacific Coastal Waters of Ecuador," in CooperationforEnvironmentalProtectioninthePacific, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 97 (Nairobi: UNEP, Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Centre, 1988), pp. 87-97, esp. p. 92. 25. Roland C. W. Seow, "Mangrove Waters as Habitat of Different Species and Their Development Stages," Bakawan 5, no. 4 (December 1986): 6-8, esp. 8. 26. V. C. Chong, "Maturation and Breeding Ecology of the White Prawn Penaeusmerguiensis (De Man)," in Proceedingsof the5thInternationalSymposium,onTropicalEcology (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, April 16-21, 1979), pp. 1175-86.
27. Samuel C. Snedaker, J. C. Dickinson III, M. S. Brown, and E. J. Lahmann, "Shrimp Pond Siting and Management Alternatives in Mangrove System in Ecuador," a USAID-funded project, published in 1986; excerpts from this report were published in Bakawan 6, no. 3 (September 1987): 2-3, and this quote is taken from the Bakawan reference. 28. Marta Vannucci, "The UNDP/UNESCO Mangrove Programme in Asia and the Pacific-Synopsis," Ambio 17, no. 3 (1988): 214-17, esp. 216. For figures of previous years, see Bureau of Forest Development, PhilippineForestryStatistics (Quezon City, Philippines: Diliman, 1977); and Natural Resources Management Center (NRMC), MangroveInventoryofthePhilippinesUsingLandsalData (Quezon City, Philippines: Diliman, 1978). 29. Ricardo M. Umali, "Coastal Resources Development and Management: The Philippines Experience," Natural Resources Management Center report (Quezon City: NRMC, ca. 1982). 30. Miguel D. Fortes, "Mangrove and Seagrass Beds of East Asia: Habitats under Stress," Ambio 17, no. 3 (1988): 207-13, esp. 210. 31. Rogelio O. Juliano, James Anderson, and Aida R. Librero, "PHILIPPINES: Perception, Human Settlements, and Resource Use in the Coastal Zone," in Man,LandandSea, ed. Chandra H. Soysa, Chia Lin Sien, and William L. Collier (Bangkok: Agricultural Development Council, 1982), pp. 219-40, esp. p. 232.
32. Saenger et al., eds. (n. 1 above), p. 40. 33. Scott E. Siddall, Joseph A. Atchue III, and Robert L. Murray, Jr., "Maricul- ture Development in Mangroves: A Case Study of the Philippines, Ecuador, and Panama" (1984), p. 43. 34. Ibid., p. 17. 35. Ibid., p. 31. 36. James M. Kapetsky, "Development of the Mangrove Ecosystem for Forestry, Fisheries and Aquaculture" (paper presented at the symposium "Ecosystem Rede- velopments: Ecological, Economic and Social Aspects," Budapest, Hungary, April 5- 10, 1987). 37. Siddall, p. 16. 38. Snedaker et al. (n. 27 above), p. 2. 39. Colorzano (n. 24 above), p. 92; however, Kapetsky states that there were 61,000 ha in shrimp ponds in Ecuador as of March 1986 (p. 13). 40. Kapetsky, p. 13. During March 1986, Kapetsky states that one-half of the shrimp ponds in Ecuador were empty because of seed-stock shortage. Hatchery- reared seed-stock production is increasing to substitute for the diminished wild-caught postlarva availability.
41. Samuel C. Snedaker, "Some Traditional Uses," Bakawan 6, no. 2 (June 1987): 10-12; and IFREMER-France Aquaculture, "The Preselection of Sites Favourable for Tropical Shrimp Farming," Bulletin of Commerce Series (Paris: IFREMER, 1987). 42. Snedaker et al., p. 2. 43. In another article on Ecuador, the same authors state that "although all mangroves have not been eliminated in the major production region, we hypothesize that the disproportionate elimination of sources of dissolved organic matter may be the dominant cause of the reduction in wild shrimp post larvae stocks" (see Enrique J. Lahmann, Samuel C. Snedaker, and Melvin S. Brown, "Structural Comparisons of Mangrove Forests near Shrimp Ponds in Southern Ecuador," Interciencia 12, no. 5 [September/October 1987]: 240-43, quoted at 242). 44. Two papers that raise this issue in the Philippines, e.g., are Richard L. Ed-
wards, "Socio-economic Implications of Fishpond Development in the Mangrove Swamp Barrio of the Philippine Islands" (Humboldt State University, Arcata, Calif., December 16, 1982); and A. B. Velasco, "Socio-cultural Factors Influencing the Utili- zation of Mangrove Resources in the Philippines: Fishpondvs.OtherUses,"TropicalEcologyandDevelopment (1980), pp. 1185-93. 45. Edwards, pp. 41-42. 46. H. T. Foo and J. T. S. Wong, "Mangrove Swamp and Fisheries in Sabah," TropicalEcologyandDevelopment (1980), pp. 1157-61. 47. For example, P. Martosubroto and N. Naamin, "Relationship between Tidal Forests (Mangroves) and Commercial Shrimp Production in Indonesia," MarineRe-searchinIndonesia, No. 18 (1979), pp. 81-86; and Marta Vannucci, "Overall Productiv- ity of Mangroves with Special Reference to Indus Delta," Bakawan 5, no. 3 (September 1986): 9-11.
48. James M. Kapetsky, "Convention of Mangroves for Pond Aquaculture: Some Short-Term and Long-Term Remedies," Bakawan 5, no. 3 (September 1986): 13 (ab- stract only). 49. Saenger et al., eds. (n. 1 above), p. 33. 50. Japan Tropical Forest Action Network, "Bintuni Bay Mangroves for Wood- chipping," AsianWetlandNews 1, no. 2 (1988): 3. 51. H. T. Chan, "Malaysia," in MangrovesofAsiaandthePacific:StatusandMan-agement (Bangkok: UNDP/Unesco, 1986), pp. 131-50.
52. See, e.g., R. G. Dixon, AWorkingPlanfortheMatangMangroveForestReserve,Perak (Malaysia: Perak State Forestry Department, 1959). 53. Hamilton and Snedaker, eds. (n. 9 above). 54. A. Luna-Lugo, ManejodemanglaresenVenezuela (Merida: Latin American Forestry Institute, 1976).
55. Growth rates are given by Christensen (n. 21 above), pp. 15-16.
56. Hamilton and Murphy (n. 11 above).
57. Cintron et al. (n. 14 above). Authors' note.-The ZoeColocotroni spill was caused when the ship grounded and the captain lightened the vessel by pumping 5.7 million liters (1.5 million gallons) of crude oil overboard. The oil was carried by currents and winds into Bahia Sucia, a semienclosed bay where much of the oil was stranded in mangrove forests. Litigation ensued, and the case, CommonwealthofPuertoRicovtheS.S.ZoeColocotroni, 456 F.Supp.1327, 1978, set several precedents for dam- ages. Damages for approximately 92 million organisms, killed because of the oil pollu- tion, were set at US$6,086,083.20 (US$751,368.30/ha of damaged mangrove forest). However, on appeal, the U.S. Court of Appeals (1) ruled on August 12, 1981, that the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico could not collect damages for the loss of the 92 million organisms since there was no plan to actually purchase the organisms and use them to restore the area; and (2) rejected the claim of US$559,500.00 for replanting man- groves in the oil-polluted areas because of previously mentioned conflicts concerning exactly how large an area of mangroves was damaged and based on the fact that replanting mangroves in oiled sediments seemed "pointless." See Roy R. Lewis III, "Impact of Oil Spills on Mangrove Forests," research report (Mangrove Systems, Inc., Tampa, Fla., July 1981), p. 15. 58. Cintron et al. 59. Ibid., p. 22. 60. M. Blumer, "Scientific Aspects of the Oil Spill Problem," EnvironmentalAf-fairs 1 (1971): 54-73.
61. See, e.g., Lai Hoi-Chaw and Feng Meow-Chan, eds., FateandEffectsof OilintheMangroveEnvironment (Pulau Pinang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1984); Charles D. Getter and Bart J. Baca, "A Laboratory Approach for Determining the Effect of Oils and Dispersants on Mangroves," (in review) Proceedings Symposium on Oil Spill Dis- persants American Society of Testing and Materials (Philadelphia, 1982); Joseph Yuska, "Microbial Degradation of Oil in Marine Environments," appendix to report by Samuel C. Snedaker and Melvin S. Brown, "Effects of the Port Sutton Oil Spill (Octo- ber 1978) on the Mangrove Community" (in-house publication of the Division of Biology and Living Resources, Resenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 1980); and see also Samuel C. Snedaker, "Oil Spills in Man- groves," working paper (East-West Environment and Policy Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1981). 62. William E. Odum and R. E. Johannes, "The Response of Mangroves to Man- induced Environmental Stress," in TropicalMarinePollution, ed. E. J. Ferguson Wood and R. E. Johannes, Elsevier Oceanography Series No. 12 (Amsterdam: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., 1975), chap. 3, pp. 52-181. 63. A. E. Lugo, G. Cintron, and C. Goenaga, "Mangrove Ecosystems under Stress," In StressEffectsonNaturalEcosystems, ed. G. W. Barrett and R. Roenberg (New York: Wiley, 1981), pp. 129-53.
64. For an overview of the ASEAN legislative response to marine pollution, see Amado S. Tolentino, Jr., "Legislative Response to Marine Threats in the ASEAN Subregion," Arrcbio 17, no. 3 (1988): 238-42.
65. Hamilton and Snedaker (n. 9 above), p. 115. 66. Christensen (n. 21 above).
67. Peter W. Burbridge and James E. Maragos, CoastalResourcesManagementandEnvironmentalAssessmentNeeds forAquaticResourcesDevelopmentinIndonesia, Report No. 33 (Washington: International Institute for Environment and Development, 1985). 68. Ibid., p. 24.
69. Lahmann et al. (n. 43 above). 70. Padma N. Lal, "Conservation or Reclamation: Economic and Ecological In- teractions within the Mangrove Ecosystem in Fiji" (Ph.D. diss., Department of Agricul- tural and Resource Economics, University of Hawaii, 1989). 71. Ibid.
72. See the forest-management guidelines in Hamilton and Snedaker, chap. 9.
73. Hamilton and Snedaker, sec. 5. 74. For a synopsis of the UNDP and Unesco involvement in mangroves in Asia and the Pacific, see Vannucci, "The UNDF/UNESCO Mangrove Program" (n. 28 above). See Also C. D. Field and A. J. Dartnall, eds., MangroveEcosystemofAsiaandthePacific:Status,ExploilalionandManagenzent, Proceedings of the Research for Develop- ment Seminar, Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS), Townsville, Australia, May 18-25, 1985 (Townsville: AIMS on behalf of the Australian Committee for Mangrove Research, 1987).