1. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), UNEPOceansProgramme:CompendiumofProjects, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 19, rev. 4 (corr) (Nairobi: UNEP, 1989-90), p. 47. This figure includes US$41.6 million from UNEP's Environmental Trust Fund, $8.8 million from participating governments, and $46.8 million from other UN agencies, largely in the form of contributions of staff time, travel, and equipment. This figure does not include the cost of national support to national marine science institutions in support of UNEP-sponsored research and monitoring projects. This money was allocated as follows: Mediterranean 20.5%, Ca- ribbean 13.8%, West and Central Africa 9.7%, South Pacific 6.2%, Southeast Pacific 6.1%, East Asian seas 5.7%, East Africa 4.3%, Gulf of Kuwait 2.7%, South Asian seas 2.0%, Red Sea 1.1%, Southwest Atlantic 0.2%, and other global programs 27.9%. The Regional Seas Programme was originally located in Geneva. With its transfer to Nai- robi in 1985, its name was changed to Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme (OCA/ PAC), and its responsibilities were expanded to include coastal zone management and marine conservation. 2. For UNEP action plans and the dates they were adopted, see figure 1 and App. G, "Status of Participation in UNEP's Legal Instruments for Marine Environ- mental Protection," in this volume. Efforts to draft arrangements for the Southwest Atlantic (Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay) were abandoned in 1983 at Brazil's request. UNEP is currently considering developing new arrangements for the Black Sea and Northwest Pacific (China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and USSR). Non- UNEP-spawned agreements exist for the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. See David Edwards, "Review of the Status of Implementation and Development of Regional
Arrangements on Cooperation in Combating Marine Pollution," in InternationalEnvi-ronmentalDiplomacy, ed. John E. Carroll (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); Lynton K. Caldwell, InternationalEnvironmentalPolicy (Durham, North Caro- lina: Duke University Press, 1984); Peter H. Sand, MarineEnvironmentalLawintheUnitedNationsEnvironmentalProgramme (London: Tycooly Publishing, 1988). For a more extensive analysis of the development of the Mediterranean model, see Peter M. Haas, SavingtheMediterranean:ThePoliticsofInternationalEnvironmentalCooperation (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990). For a review of all regimes applying to the marine environment, see Boleslaw A. Boczek, "The Concept of Regime and the Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment," in OceanYearbook6, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986), pp. 271-97. 3. A fuller assessment should be based on a closer study of national practices, including investment, legislation, and policy, in order to determine whether any fuller enforcement of these public commitments has in fact occurred. This is impossible to do without extensive fieldwork, as little of such data is available for most countries. For an effort to do such an appraisal for the Mediterranean see Haas (n. 2 above), chap. 5; and in a slightly different sphere for (mixed) U.K. compliance with EEC guidelines, see Nigel Haigh, EECEnvironmentalPolicyandBritain,2ded. (London: Environmental Data Services, 1988). 4. Stjepan Keckes, "Theory and Practice of the United Nations Environment Programme in Dealing with Regional Marine Problems," Thalassia Jvgoslavica 13, no. 3/4 (1977): 217-38. Keckes, one of the architects of the Mediterranean strategy, notes (pp. 218-19), "The Mediterranean Action Plan, as adopted at the Intergovernmental Meeting on the Protection of the Mediterranean (Barcelona, 28 January-4 February, 1975) and developed since then is used as a model for a comprehensive programme aiming at the protection and development of regional seas. However, it should be recognized that the approach used in the Mediterranean region cannot be copied mechanically in all regions due to variations in the state of knowledge, the information and human resources available, and other regional characteristics. It must be assumed that the nature of environmental problems will vary considerably between each of the regions selected as priority areas by the Governing Council. Each regional grouping
of Governments will perceive differently the common problems which they wish to resolve through co-operative programmes, and it cannot be overly emphasized that it is these Governments in whom ultimate responsibility rests to ensure wise manage- ment of the common resources." 5. The Stockholm Conference adopted an Action Plan for the Human Environ- ment, with 109 recommendations organized within a framework consisting of environ- mental assessment, environmental management activities, and national, international, and educational supporting measures (United Nations, ReportoftheUnitedNationsConferenceontheHumanEnvironment [New York: United Nations, 1973], Doc. A/Conf. 48/14/Rev. 1, chap. 2).
6. Ibid., pp. 4-5. 7. UNEP/GC/Dec. 1 E. Oceans (1973); UNEP/GC/Dec./8 (II) (1974); UNEP/ GC 10, Annex 1 (1982). 8. UNEP/GC/55 Dec. 9. Patricia A. Bliss-Guest and Stjepan Keckes, "The Regional Seas Programme of UNEP," EnvironmentalConservation 9, no. 1 (Spring 1982): 43-49. 10. For a consideration of the ubiquitous problems typically encountered in col- lective environmental protection efforts at managing such common problems, see Oran R. Young, InternationalCooperationBuildingRegimesforNaturalResourcesandtheEnvironment (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1989). 11. Peter H. Sand, "The Rise of Regional Agreements for Marine Environment Protection," in Food and Agriculture Organization, TheLawandtheSea:EssaysinMemoryofjeanCarroz (Rome: FAO, 1987), pp. 223-32. 12. Patricia A. Bliss-Guest, "Environmental Stress in the East African Region," Ambio 12, no. 6 (1983): 295.
13. UNEP, "Guidelines and Principles concerning a Comprehensive Action Plan for the Protection of Regional Seas through Environmental Sound Development," UNEP/IAMRS.1/6 Annex II (18 June 1976); UNEP, AchievementsandPlannedDevelop-mentofUNEP'sRegionalSeasProgrammeandComparableProgrammesSponsoredbyOtherBodies, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 1 (Geneva: UNEP, 1982); UNEP, Bo�M, UNEP Regionat Seas Reports and Studies no. I (Geneva: UNEP, 1982); UNEP, GuidelinesandPrinciplesforthePreparationandImplementationofComprehensiveActionPlanesfortheProtectionandDevelopmentofMarineandCoastalAreasofRegionalSeas, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 15 (Geneva: UNEP, 1982).
14. UNEP (n. 1 above), pp. 63-75.
15. UNEP/IAMRS.6/INF.3, p. 6, Sec. 4.1.2; "Information on the Status and Planned Development of UNEP-Sponsored Programme for the Protection of Oceans and Coastal Areas," 31 August 1989. See also Bliss-Guest and Keckes (n. 9 above), p. 44.
16. Peter Hulm, "The Regional Seas Programme: What Fate for UNEP's Crown Jewels?" Ambio 12, no. 1 (1983): 12-13. Keckes wrote that the "key to success of any regional seas action plan is the political agreement of the governments concerned and the execution of the programme primarily by national institutions from the region, in close co-operation with the relevant specialized organizations of the United Nations system and other appropriate organizations relevant to the region" (Stjepan Keckes, "The UNEP Sponsored Regional Seas Programme," in UNEP, Co-operation forEnviron-mentalProtectioninthePacific., UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 97 [Nai- robi: UNEP, 1988]).
17. Editors' note.-The OceanYearbook volumes have closely followed the efforts to establish environmental and conservation regimes in the Mediterranean. Some of the articles from previous volumes relevant to this article are listed here: "UN Environmental Programme: Activities for the Protection and Development of the Mediterranean Region," OceanYearbook 1, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978), pp. 548-97; "Recommenda- tions for the Future Development of the Mediterranean Action Plan," in OceanYear-book2, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 547-54; Peter S. Thacher and Nikki Meith, "Approaches
to Regional Marine Problems: A Progress Report on UNEP's Regional Seas Pro- gramme," in OceanYearbook2, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980), pp. 153-82 (the Mediterranean Action Plan is discussed on pp. 158-68); "UNEP: An Update on the Regional Seas Pro- gramme," in OceanYearbook4, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese and Norton Ginsburg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), pp. 450-61; Adalberta Vallega, "A Human Geographical Approach to Semienclosed Seas: The Mediterranean Case," in OceanYearbook 7, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Mor- gan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), pp. 372-93; Aldo Chircop, "Partici- pation in Marine Regionalism: An Appraisal in a Mediterranean Context," in OceanYearbook8, ed. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, Norton Ginsburg, and Joseph R. Morgan (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), pp. 402-16. 18. UNEP, Food and Agriculture Organization, and World Health Organization, Assessmentof theStateofPollutionoftheMediterraneanSeabyPetroleumHydrocarbons, MAP Technical Reports Series no. 18 (Athens: UNEP, 1987); UNEP and Intergovernmen- tal Oceanographic Commission, Assessmentof theStateofPollutionoftheMediterraneanSea byPetroleumHydrocarbons, MAP Technical Reports Series no. 19 (Athens: UNEP, 1988); UNEP and World Health Organization, EpidemiologicalStudiesRelatedtoEnvi-ronmentalQualityCriteriaforBathingWaters,Shellfish-GrowingWaters,andEdibleMarineOrganisms(ActivityD):FinalReporlonProjectonRelationshipbetweenMicrobialQualityofCoastalSeawaterandHealthEffects(1983-86), MAP Technical Reports Series no. 20 (Athens: UNEP, 1988); UNEP/IG. 56/5 Recs. 5 and 6; UNEP/IG. 75/5 Rec. K 3. 19. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above), App. G of this volume. 20. World Health Organization, "Monitoring of Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution in the Mediterranean," report of a joint WHO/UNEP consultation, Split, EUR/ICP/CEH 044, Annex 2, 1-5 December 1987. 21. Regional Oil Combating Centre, Directory fortheMediterraneanRegionofParti-cipantstoMarinePollutionCombatingTrainingCourses (Manoel Island, Malta: ROCC, 1988).
22. Land-use planning in earthquake zones; rehabilitation and reconstruction of historic settlements; water resource development of small islands and isolated coastal areas, and large islands; aquaculture development; and soil protection. 23. UNEP, TheRegionalActivityCentrefortheMediterraneanSpeciallyProtectedAr-eas:Evaluationof ItsDeveloprreentandAchievements, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 100 (Nairobi: UNEP, 1988). 24. Memo from Aldo Manos to Mr. A. T. Brough, Dr. S. Keckes, 25 September 1989, "MED Umbrella Project," p. 17. 25. Paul Evan Ress, "Mediterranean Sea Becoming Cleaner," EnvironmentalCon-servation 13 (Autumn 1986): 267-68. 26. Unesco, InternationalDirectoryofMarineScientists, 3d ed. (Paris: Unesco, 1983); UNEP, DirectoryofMediterraneanMarineResearchCenters (UNEP: Geneva, 1977). The numbers for marine science capabilities presented in the following paragraphs draw from the Unesco directory and subsequent directories compiled by UNEP. Each directory is based on different surveys sent to the region's institutions, so that the information in the two sources is somewhat different.
27. Haas (n. 2 above), chap. 5; Peter M. Haas, "Do Regimes Matter? Epistemic Communities and Mediterranean Pollution Control," InternationalOrganization 43, no. 3 (Summer 1989): 377-404. 28. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above). 29. Ibid. 30. J. Jairo Escobar Ramirez, ProgrammaCoordinadodelnvestigacidny VigilanciadelaContaminaci6nmarineenelPacificoSudeste:CONPACSEI (Bogota: Comision Per- manente del Pacifico Sur [CPPS], 1989), p. 3. 31. UNEP, "CONPACSE Evaluation and Recommendations for Its Further De- velopment" (10 August 1989), p. 3.
32. See, "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above). 33. Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment, In-depthEvaluationandReorientationof theKuwaitActionPlan, ROPME/WG-37/2 (Kuwait: ROPME, 1988), p. 17.
34. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above). 35. Editors' note.-Egypt acceded to both the Convention and the Emergency Protocol on 21 May 1990, and they were in force on 20 August 1990. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above). 36. UNEP, TheEastAsianSeasActionPlan:EvaluationofItsDevelopmentandAchievements, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 86 (Nairobi: UNEP, 1987), p. 3. 37. Editors' note.-See the article in this volume on marine research in the North Pacific: Daniel J. Dzurek, "Marine Scientific Research and Policy Issues in East Asia." ' 38. Mark Baker, Libby Bassett, and Athleen Ellington, TheWorldEnvironmentHandbook (New York: World Environment Center, 1985); Ichiro Kato, Nobuo Kuma- moto, and William H. Matthews, eds., EnvironmentalLawandPolicyinthePacificBasin
Area (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1981); Colin MacAndrews and Chia Lin Sien, eds., DevelopingEconomiesandtheEnvironment:TheSoutheastAsianExperience (Singa- pore: McGraw-Hill International, 1979). 39. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above).
40. A 1989 evaluation of the Caribbean concluded that "funds ... support[ed] projects that can hardly be classified as regional projects or as national projects having a regional significance" (UNEP, TheActionPlanfortheCaribbeanEnvironmentalPro-gramme:Evaluationof ItsDevelopmentandAchievements, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 109 [Nairobi: UNEP, 1989], p. 6).
41. See "Status of Participation" (n. 2 above). 42. Ibid. 43. UNEP (OCA)/WACAF IG.3/4 Annex III; UNEP, TheWestandCentralAfri-canActionPlan:Evaluationof ItsDevelopmentsandAchievements, UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies no. 101 (UNEP: Nairobi, 1989). This support went to Cameroon (US$54,000), Congo ($6,000), Cote d'lvoire ($102,000), Gambia ($38,000), Ghana ($59,000), Nigeria ($69,000), Senegal ($55,000), and Sierra Leone ($47,000). Atomic absorption spectrophotometers went to Ghana, Cote d'lvoire, Senegal, and Cameroon. Gas chromatographs went to Gambia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Cote d'lvoire. 44. UNEP/IAMRS.6/4 Annex IV, p. 20.
45. UNEP (OCA)/WACAF IG. 3/3 Annex "Report on the UNEP/Gulf of Guinea Action Plan Contact Mission to Six Countries of West and Central Africa."
46. See, for example, MarinePollutionAssessmentandControlProgrammefortheWiderCaribbeanRegion:CEPPOL, IOC/UNEP-RRW-I/8, IOC Workshop Report no. 59 Supp. (1989).
47. UNEP (OCA)/EAF IG.2/4. 48. UNEP/IAMRS. 6/4, pp. 47-48. 49. Sand (n. 2 above), p. xv. 50. Ibid. See also Edith Brown Weiss, InFairnesstoFutureGenerations:Interna-tionalLaw,CommonPatrimony,andInter-generationalEquity (Ardsley-on-Hudson, New York: Transnational Publishers, 1989).
51. International Maritime Organization and UNEP, CatalogueofOilSpillRe-sponseEquipmentandProducts, UNEP Regional Seas Directories and Bibliographies (Rome: FAO, 1988).