The Ḥāshiya in Islamic Law: A Sketch of the Shāfiʿī Literature

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This essay presents a survey of legal ḥawāshī (glosses) produced by Shāfiʿī jurists between the fifteenth and twentieth centuries. I outline the particular features of the legal ḥāshiya, the kind of legal reasoning that it promoted, and the structure of scholastic authority within the legal school that it embodied. I argue that the rise and decline of the ḥāshiya genre is reflective of broader trends in the evolution of Islamic scholarship.

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References

1

Eduard Sachau, Muhammedanisches Recht nach schafiitischer Lehre (Stuttgart: W. Spemann, 1897).

8

A good example is Baber Johansen, The Islamic Law on Land Tax and Rent: The Peasants’ Loss of Property Rights as Interpreted in the Hanafite Legal Literature of the Mamluk and Ottoman Periods (London: Croom Helm, 1988).

13

Sachau, Muhammedanisches Recht nach schafiitischer Lehre, xv.

15

Al-Kurdī, al-Fawāʾid al-madaniyya, 36. The same phenomenon can be observed among the Mālikīs; see Abū ʿĪsā al-Mahdī al-Wazzānī (d. 1342/1923), al-Nawāzil al-jadīda al-kubrā, ed. ʿUmar b. ʿAbbād, 12 vols. (Rabat: Wizārat al-awqāf, 1996–2000), 12:328.

19

Al-Ḥusaynī, Nihāyat al-iḥkām fi-mā li-l-niyya min al-aḥkām (Bulaq: al-Maṭbaʿa al-amīriyya, 1903), 4.

32

Al-Ḥusaynī, Nihāyat al-iḥkām, 22.

33

Al-Ḥusaynī, Nihāyat al-iḥkām, 8.

39

Timothy Mitchell, Colonising Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), 83–4.

40

Al-Bājūrī, Ḥāshiya, 2:370.

58

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1918.

68

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1926.

74

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1918.

80

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 2:1262.

84

See al-Bābānī, Hadiyyat al-ʿārifīn, 2:300.

93

See al-Bābānī, Hadiyyat al-ʿārifīn, 1:298.

104

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1804.

133

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1925.

135

See al-Ḥabashī, Jāmiʿ al-shurūḥ wa-l-ḥawāshī, 3:1804.

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