The Rhetoric of Hudhalī Wine Poetry

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The aim of this article is to examine which rhetorical techniques were used by the Hudhalī poets to describe the element of wine and how these techniques were used. The article covers all the wine verses mentioned by the Hudhalīs. The statistical analysis shows that in the present corpus there is more weight to the rhetorical devices related to the sense in comparison to those related to the sound. The most popular rhetorical techniques related to the sense are: metonymy (40% of the total techniques used in the corpus); then simile (10%) and intellectual trope (9%). The intellectual trope is used as a means to present figuratively the wine as a noble woman. The techniques most often related to the sound are part-alliteration (16%), then repetition and grammatical endings (6% for each). The article suggests the need to study the rhetorical figures in as many themes as possible in classical Arabic poetry.

The Rhetoric of Hudhalī Wine Poetry

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References

2

For examples see Wolfhart Heinrichs“Istiʿārah and Badīʿ and Their Terminological Relationship in Early Arabic Literary Criticism,” Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften 1 (1984): 180–211; idem “Paired Metaphors in Muḥdath Poetry” Occasional Papers of the School of Abbasid Studies 1 (1986): 1–22; Suzanne Stetkevych “Toward a Redefinition of ‘Badīʿ’ Poetry” Journal of Arabic Literature 12 (1981): 1–29; eadem Abū Tammām and the Poetics of the Abbasid Age (Leiden: E.J. Brill 1991) 5–37. See the Arabic translation of this last resource in eadem ash-Shiʿr wa-sh-shiʿriyya fī l-ʿaṣr al-ʿabbāsī translated by Ḥasan al-Bannā ʿIzz ad-Dīn (Cairo: al-Markaz al-Qawmī li-t-Tarjama 2008) 83–120; Ewald Wagner “Die arabische Dichtung von 725 bis in das 10. Jahrhundert n. Chr.” a chapter in his book Grundzüge der klassischen arabischen Dichtung Band II: Die arabische Dichtung in islamischer Zeit (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 1988) 89–150.

4

Thomas BauerAltarabische Dichtkunst: Eine Untersuchung ihrer Struktur und Entwicklung am Beispiel der Onagerepisode (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz1992); Erich Bräunlich “Versuch einer literargeschichtlichen Betrachtungsweise altarabischer Poesien” Der Islam 24 (1937): 201–269; cf. 222–226.

6

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 138; Fehim Bajraktarević “Abū Kabīr al-Hudhalī” The Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd edition online version vol. 1 130–131.

7

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 251.

8

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 253.

10

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 259.

11

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 259.

12

Renate Jacobi“Abū Dhuʾayb,” The Encyclopaedia of Islam3rd edition online version.

13

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 263–264.

15

Ali Hussein“Mulayḥ Ibn al-Ḥakam: The Man Through His Poetical Output,” Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes 101 (2011): 233–272.

16

SezginGeschichte des arabischen Schrifttums2: 405.

18

Az-Ziriklīal-Aʿlām4: 90.

25

Renate Jacobi“Die Anfänge der arabischen Ġazalpoesie: Abū Ḏuʾaib al-Huḏalī,” Der Islam 61 (1984): 225. See an Arabic translation of this article in Mūsā Rabābiʿa Marāyā l-istishrāq al-almānī al-muʿāṣir wa-sh-shiʿr al-ʿarabī al-qadīm (Amman: Dār Jarīr 2008) cf. 186–188. See a similar discussion in Thomas Bauer Liebe und Liebesdichtung in der arabischen Welt des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts: Eine literatur- und mentalitätsgeschichtliche Studie des arabischen Ġazal (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1998) 44–46.

28

Hussein Abdul-RaofArabic Rhetoric: A Pragmatic Analysis (Oxon and New York: Routledge2006) 212–217.

29

Julie Scott MeisamiStructure and Meaning in Medieval Arabic and Persian Poetry: Orient Pearls (London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon2003) 329–330. In the pages quoted Meisami gives a clear explanation of the notions of ʿAbd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī concerning the majāz ʿaqlī.

30

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 46.

31

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 46.

33

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 48.

34

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 115.

39

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon4: 1286–1287.

40

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 55.

41

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 94.

42

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 990.

43

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 991.

44

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon5: 2175.

45

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon5: 2175.

47

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon2: 586.

49

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon4: 1426.

50

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon5: 2035.

51

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn3: 1268.

54

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon8: 2869.

55

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 971.

56

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 95.

57

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 967.

58

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 117.

62

August Ferdinand Mehren (ed.)Die Rhetorik der Araber nach den wichtigsten Quellen dargestellt und mit angefügten Textauszügen nebst einem literatur-geschichtlichen Anhange versehen (Kopenhagen: Otto Schwartz1853) Arabic part 44.

64

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 45 73.

66

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 938. Ibn Jinnī mentions that the word mudāma was originally an adjective then it became a noun indicating simply “wine;” see Abū l-Fatḥ ʿUthmān Ibn Jinnī at-Tamām fī tafsīr ashʿār Hudhayl mimmā aghfalahu Abū Saʿīd as-Sukkarī eds. Aḥmad Nājī al-Qaysī Khadīja ʿAbd ar-Rāziq al-Ḥadīthī Aḥmad Maṭlūb (Baghdad: Maṭbaʿat al-ʿĀnī 1962) 223.

67

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon4: 1409.

68

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 1180.

69

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon6: 2413.

70

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 1053.

72

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 172.

73

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon4: 1737.

74

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn2: 17.

77

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon3: 1225.

78

Ibn Jinnīat-Tamām223.

79

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon7: 2694.

80

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 75.

81

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon7: 2540.

82

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn1: 95.

85

LaneAn Arabic-English Lexicon5: 2034.

90

As-SukkarīKitāb Sharḥ ashʿār al-Hudhaliyyīn3: 1268.

98

Abdul-RaofArabic Rhetoric283; Cachia The Arch Rhetorician 18.

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