The 1967 defeat thoroughly discredited Arab nationalist regimes and movements that proved incapable of liberating Palestine and achieving Arab unity. This contributed to the rise of several Palestinian guerrilla groups who took up popular armed struggle as a primary means of achieving their goals. The takeover of the Palestine Liberation Organization by Fatḥ and other armed organizations in 1969 was a watershed in the history of the Palestinian struggle and marked the emergence of an independent national liberation movement. This paper focuses on the origins, the ideological developments, and the main currents of Palestinian resistance thought in the years 1967-1973, when the fundamental documents and principles that were to constitute the basis of Palestinian resistance movement were elaborated. While doing that, it also shows what influence Palestinian resistance thought had on the shaping of contemporary Middle East.