Pentecostals and the Apocalypse: A Survey of Recent Pentecostal Biblical Scholarship on the Apocalypse

in Journal of Pentecostal Theology
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This review article offers a survey of Pentecostal scholarship on the Apocalypse since 1983. The survey is divided into three categories: monographs, chapter essays, and journal articles. Within each category, the scholarship is reviewed in chronological order.

Sections

References

2

Gause, p. 21.

5

Keener, pp. 208–16.

7

Herms, p. 3–4.

8

Herms, p. 18, notes that Aune does not advocate rearranging the text (as Charles proposes), but he does acknowledge ‘narrative tension’ that suggests the ‘simultaneous influence of distinct apocalyptic traditions regarding the role and fate of the nations from which the author simply could not extract himself’.

9

Herms, p. 19.

11

Herms, pp. 136–37.

12

Herms, p. 260.

13

Herms, p. 260, ‘Here it is argued that universal language does not necessarily presuppose universal salvation; rather, it serves to vindicate the faithful community, and validate their present circumstances in light of a future reversal’.

15

Mayo, p. 1.

22

Mayo, p. 25.

23

Mayo, p. 26.

25

Mayo, p. 74.

26

Mayo, p. 75.

27

Mayo, p. 160.

28

Mayo, p. 165.

29

Mayo, p. 198.

30

Mayo, p. 203.

31

Mayo, p. 204.

33

Waddell, p. 40.

34

Waddell, p. 8.

35

Waddell, pp. 21–2.

36

Waddell, p. 48.

37

Waddell, p. 49.

40

Waddell, p. 102.

41

Waddell, p. 118.

42

Waddell, p. 131.

43

Waddell, p. 133.

44

Waddell, p. 191.

46

Wilson, p. 76.

47

Wilson, p. 168.

48

Wilson, pp. 170–71.

49

 See also Wilson, Charts on the Book of Revelation: Literary, Historical, and Theological Perspectives (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2007). Wilson suggests that Revelation ‘lends itself best to visualization in charts’. As to the material in the charts, Wilson indicates that the material in Revelation is usually given first, with ot or extrabiblical literature listed underneath. The book is comprised of 74 charts, covering topics such as authorship (chart 1), literary genres of Revelation (chart 6), minerals, gems and other commodities in Revelation (chart 21), theories of the Rapture from Revelation (chart 38), and thematic parallels between Genesis 1–3 and Revelation (chart 71) and 5 maps. Additionally Wilson provides an appendix for the reader of commentaries and sources consulted for each chart and map as well as a general bibliography. The book is intended for classroom use as all the charts are reproducible.

51

Skaggs, Revelation, p. 166.

53

Fee, p. ix.

56

Thomas, The Apocalypse, p. 40.

63

Wilson, p. 192.

64

Wilson, p. 201.

66

Waddell, p. 31.

67

Waddell, p. 37.

68

Waddell, p. 41.

72

Thomas, ‘Pneumatic Discernment: The Image of the Beast and His Number’, p. 124.

74

Thomas, p. 111.

75

Thomas, p. 113.

76

Thomas, p. 115.

77

Thomas, p. 116.

78

Thomas, p. 117.

81

Thomas, p. 123.

82

Thomas, p. 123.

83

Thomas, ‘The Mystery of the Great Whore: Pneumatic Discernment’, p. 111.

84

Thomas, p. 115.

85

Thomas, p. 116.

86

Thomas, p. 117.

87

Thomas, p. 118. Thomas writes, ‘[W]hen the hearers learn that the name of the Great Whore is Babylon the Great, they understand they must discern its meaning, as they have discerned numerous other names, titles, and events throughout the Apocalypse’.

88

Thomas, pp. 126–27.

89

Thomas, p. 129.

90

Thomas, pp. 134–35.

91

Thomas, p. 136.

93

Herms, p. 100.

94

Herms, p. 100.

95

Herms, pp. 107–08. Herms lists seven ways in which this is so: (1) Each usage contains a 1st person singular reference to the narrator/seer and serves to validate the prophet and his message; (2) The repetition of the phrase enables the hearers to ‘identify the major movements of the prophetic narrative’ (p. 107); (3) Each usage ensures continuity with what has come before while at the same time providing further progression; (4) Each occurrence of the phrase introduces a new location where John receives further revelation; (5) Each usage introduces a heavenly mediator or guide; (6) Each usage is linked with something John sees; and (7) The final two visions use the phrases to compare and contrast Babylon with New Jerusalem, which ‘suggests that this phrase is indeed the literary feature intended by the author to communicate the major movements in Revelation’s narrative development’ (p. 108).

97

Herms, p. 110.

98

Herms, p. 110.

99

Herms, p. 112.

100

Herms, p. 113.

101

Jacobus deSmidt, ‘Hermeneutical Perspectives on the Spirit in the Book of Revelation’, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 14 (1999), pp. 27–47.

102

deSmidt, p. 45.

103

Jacobus deSmidt, ‘A Meta-Theology of ̔Ο ΘΕΟΣ in Revelations [sic] 1:1–2,’ Neotestamentica 38.2 (2004), pp. 183–208.

104

deSmidt, pp. 183–184.

106

deSmidt, p. 202.

107

Jacobus deSmidt, ‘The First μακάριος in Revelation 1:3’, Acta Patristica et Byzantina 15 (2004), pp. 91–118.

108

deSmidt, p. 91.

109

deSmidt, p. 112.

110

Rebecca Skaggs and Thomas Doyle, ‘Violence in the Apocalypse of John’, Currents in Biblical Research 5.2 (2007), pp. 220–34.

111

Skaggs and Doyle, p. 227.

114

Skaggs and Doyle, p. 229.

115

Skaggs and Doyle, p. 229.

116

Ian Paul, ‘Ebbing and Flowing: Scholarly Developments in Study of the Book of Revelation’, The Expository Times 119.11 (2008), pp. 523–31.

117

Paul, p. 525.

118

Paul, p. 527.

119

J. Newton, ‘Reading Revelation Romantically’, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 18 (2009), pp. 194–215.

120

Newton, p. 198.

121

Newton, pp. 202–203, lists the following: (1) Love stories involve a male and female, usually young; (2) There is a ‘romantic and sexual attraction between them, based on their beauty’; (3) Problems and misunderstandings that often happen after a time of physical separation arise in the relationship; (4) Other characters in the story ‘assist or impede the progress of the love relationship’; (5) Literary devices, speeches in particular, are used to keep the interest of the reader; (6) Stories reveal the Mediterranean society of their time; (7) The gods, or God in Jewish stories, play a role in assisting the characters; (8) The couple faces conflict, dangers, or rivalry, including pressure from others to end the relationship; (9) A plot which includes ‘adventures, dangers, reverses, crises, fortunate turns, parallel narratives and other features’; (10) A climax where problems are solved and (11) a happy ending where ‘lovers are united and their love vindicated’.

122

Newton, p. 208.

124

Newton, p. 211.

125

Newton, p. 211.

126

Newton, p. 211.

127

Newton, p. 213.

129

Newton, p. 215.

130

Rebecca Skaggs and Thomas Doyle, ‘Lion/Lamb in Revelation’, Currents in Biblical Research 7.3 (2009), pp. 362–75.

131

Skaggs and Doyle, p. 362.

132

 See Skaggs and Doyle, p. 371, for a helpful summary.

133

Skaggs and Doyle, p. 372.

134

Robby Waddell, ‘What time is it? Half-past three: How to calculate eschatological time’, Journal of the European Pentecostal Theological Association 31.2 (2011), pp. 141–52.

135

Waddell, p. 142.

136

Waddell, p. 145.

137

Waddell, p. 146.

138

Waddell, p. 147.

139

Waddell, p. 148.

140

Waddell, p. 150. Waddell’s concluding paragraph to this section of his essay is particularly striking. ‘The Dispensational approach which projects the meaning of Revelation into the future may very well have some truth because the future may hold a version of the beast that is far worse than heretofore seen. Yet, my real concern is for the current status of the church which has been duped into believing that she is safe because a popular interpretation of the book has convinced her that if she is not presently suffering, whether physically, socially, economically, or politically, that she is not in any imminent danger of being destroyed by the beast. In fact, the danger of the church – especially in North America and Europe – assimilating into the beastly systems of the world, has never been more prevalent’.

141

Waddell, p. 152.

142

Cullen Tanner, ‘Climbing the Lampstand-Witness-Trees: Revelation’s Use of Zechariah 4 in Light of Speech Act Theory’, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 20 (2011), pp. 81–92.

143

Tanner, p. 82.

144

Tanner, p. 88.

145

Tanner, p. 89.

146

Melissa Archer, ‘The Worship Scenes in the Apocalypse, Effective History, and Early Pentecostal Periodical Literature’, Journal of Pentecostal Theology 21 (2012), pp. 87–112.

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