The Holy Spirit and Eschatology – with Implications for Ministry and the Doctrine of Spirit Baptism

in Journal of Pentecostal Theology
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The coming of the Spirit at Pentecost represents both fulfillment and anticipation of eschatological expectations in as much as Pentecost both fulfills previous expectations regarding the coming of the Spirit and represents a promise of the future consummation of the work of God. This already/not yet reality of the eschaton is evident throughout pneumatology and carries implications for ministry and Christian living and for the doctrine of Spirit baptism. Believers should minister in the power of the Spirit with the aim of the kingdom of God that is already present while longing with Spirit-inspired hope for the future eschatological work of the Spirit that has not yet taken place. Furthermore, Spirit baptism is eschatological in as much as Pentecost fulfills and anticipates numerous eschatological expectations regarding the coming of the Spirit, including not only power for witness, but also a new heart, obedience, new life, and eventually resurrection.

The Holy Spirit and Eschatology – with Implications for Ministry and the Doctrine of Spirit Baptism

in Journal of Pentecostal Theology




Gerald T. Sheppard‘Pentecostals and the Hermeneutics of Dispensationalism: The Anatomy of an Uneasy Relationship’Pneuma 6.1 (Fall 1984) pp. 5–33.


VanGemeren and Abernethy‘The Spirit and the Future’ p. 325.


VanGemeren and Abernethy‘The Spirit and the Future’ p. 345. A survey of the Torah Former Prophets Latter Prophets and Writings can be found on pp. 325–44.


Frank D. MacchiaBaptized in the Spirit: A Global Pentecostal Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan2006) pp. 85–86.


Roger StronstadThe Prophethood of All Believers: A Study in Luke’s Charismatic Theology (JPTSup, 16; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press1998) pp. 115 123. Similarly Robert P. Menzies Empowered for Witness: The Spirit in Luke-Acts (JPTSup 6; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press 1994) pp. 226–8. Regarding the Old Testament expectation see Wilf Hildebrandt An Old Testament Theology of the Spirit of God (Peabody ma: Hendrickson 1995) p. 205.


BeckThe Holy Spirit and the Renewal of All Things pp. 34–36 40–41 46–47.


StronstadThe Prophethood of All Believers p. 123.


Byron Klaus‘The Holy Spirit and Mission in Eschatological Perspective: A Pentecostal Viewpoint’Pneuma 27.2 (Fall 2005) pp. 322–42 (328–29); and Steven Jack Land Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom (Cleveland tn: cpt Press 2010 [originally printed with different pagination by Sheffield Academic Press 1993]) p. 58.


LandPentecostal Spirituality p. 177 (emphasis added).


Peter AlthouseSpirit of the Last Days: Pentecostal Eschatology in Conversation with Jürgen Moltmann (JPTSup, 25; London: T & T Clark International2003) p. 194.


AlthouseSpirit of the Last Days196. Similarly see Murray W. Dempster ‘Eschatology Spirit Baptism and Inclusiveness: An Exploration into the Hallmarks of a Pentecostal Social Ethic’ in Peter Althouse and Robby Waddell (eds.) Perspectives in Pentecostal Eschatologies: World Without End (Eugene or: Pickwick 2010) pp. 155–88 (186–87); and Land Pentecostal Spirituality p. 224.


David J.CoureyWhat has Wittenberg to do with Azusa? Luther’s Theology of the Cross and Pentecostal Triumphalism (London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark2015) pp. 3 and 198.


CoureyWhat has Wittenberg to do with Azusa?244. On the presence of the Word of Faith movement throughout global Pentecostalism see Allan Heaton Anderson An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charistmatic Christianity 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 214) pp. 131 218 285 and 301.


Simon ChanPentecostal Theology and the Christian Spiritual Tradition (JPTSup, 21; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press2000) p. 110.


FeeGod’s Empowering Presence p. 826. Cf. Jürgen Moltmann The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation (trans. Margaret Kohl; Minneapolis mn: Fortress 1992) p. 73.


PalmaThe Holy Spirit p. 97. I say ‘begun to have been fulfilled’ because the Spirit has not yet been poured out on ‘all flesh’. Some would maintain that that Spirit has already been poured out on all flesh. Jürgen Moltmann for example tends to emphasize that the Spirit is ‘already poured out on all flesh’ (Spirit of Life p. 182 also pp. 240 270). However the fact that many people received the Spirit for the first time after the day of Pentecost indicates otherwise. Furthermore there is still what Steven M. Studebaker calls a ‘pneumatological remainder’. See his From Pentecost to the Triune God: A Pentecostal Trinitarian Theology (Pentecostal Manifestos; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2012) pp. 89–90.


Routledge‘The Spirit and the Future in the Old Testament’ pp. 365–6.


MacchiaBaptized in the Spirit p. 87; and Frank D. Macchia Justified in the Spirit: Creation Redemption and the Triune God (Pentecostal Manifestos; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2010) p. 189.


StudebakerFrom Pentecost to the Triune God p. 91. Cf. pp. 7–8 and 89–91.


MacchiaBaptized in the Spirit p. 60. Cf. Cheung ‘Understandings of Spirit-Baptism’ pp. 126–7.


 See Andrew K. Gabriel‘The Intensity of the Spirit in a Spirit-Filled World: Spirit Baptism, Subsequence, and the Spirit of Creation’Pneuma 34 (2012) pp. 365–82 (p. 379).


MacchiaBaptized in the Spirit p. 281. Cf. pp. 15 and 60 78–79. In the phrase ‘with charismatic signs following’ one will note Macchia’s desire to maintain a place for the doctrine of ‘initial evidence’ along with this eschatological interpretation of Spirit baptism. See Frank D. Macchia ‘Tongues as a Sign: Towards a Sacramental Understanding of Pentecostal Experience’ Pneuma 15.1 (Spring 1993) pp. 61–76; and Frank D. Macchia ‘Groans too Deep for Words: Towards a Theology of Tongues as Initial Evidence’ Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 1.2 (1998) pp. 1–20. Similarly Simon Chan Pentecostal Theology and the Christian Spiritual Tradition (JPTSup 21; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press 2000) pp. 40–72; and Thompson Kingdom Come pp. 129–34.


ThompsonKingdom Come p. 124. On his eschatological and cosmic view of Spirit baptism see further pp. 129–37. Similarly see Sergius Bulgakov The Comforter (trans. BorisJakim; Grand Rapids: Eerdmans 2004) pp. 284–5; Macchia Baptized in the Spirit pp. 101–107; and Beck The Holy Spirit and the Renewal of All Things pp. 220 and 240.


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