The Full Gospel and the Apocalypse

in Journal of Pentecostal Theology
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As we seek to chart a way forward into our second century, many Pentecostals are re-looking at the fundamentals that have defined them as a stream within Christianity. Thus, some Pentecostal theologians are re-examining and redefining the ‘full gospel’, the fourfold or fivefold revelation of Jesus Christ as Savior, Healer, Sanctifier, Spirit Baptizer, and Coming King. In this article, the author surveys these discussions on the ‘full gospel’ and looks into the book of Revelation for a fresh perspective on this topic. It is argued that each aspect of the fivefold revelation of Jesus is reflected in Revelation to some degree, but not always in the way Pentecostals have taught it. Therefore, a dialogue between classic Pentecostalism and Revelation opens up new ways of looking at both.

The Full Gospel and the Apocalypse

in Journal of Pentecostal Theology

Sections

References

6

William Oliverio JrTheological Hermeneutics in the Classical Pentecostal Tradition (Leiden: Brill2012) p. 32; D. William Faupel The Everlasting Gospel (JPTSup 10; Blandford Forum uk: Deo 2009) pp. 28–30 229–30. The classic North American Pentecostals used various names to describe themselves such as ‘Full Gospel’ ‘Apostolic Faith’ ‘Latter Rain’ and ‘Pentecostal’ (Anderson Introduction to Pentecostalism pp. 56 60–61).

8

 Cf FaupelEverlasting Gospel pp. 96–114 on the historical background to this. See also Mathew K. Thompson Kingdom Come: Revisioning Pentecostal Eschatology (JPTSup 37; Blandford Forum uk: Deo 2010) pp. 52–53.

11

 Though see FaupelEverlasting Gospel pp. 289–90 on how this stance was modified by followers of the ‘New Issue’ in North America. See also Amos Yong Spirit-Word-­Community: Theological Hermeneutics in Trinitarian Perspective (Eugene or: Wipf and Stock 2002) pp. 30–31.

13

MacchiaBaptized p. 59; see also p. 80.

16

ThomasEcclesiology p. 4.

18

Archer‘Fivefold Gospel’ p. 36.

19

Archer‘Fivefold Gospel’ p. 37.

20

Archer‘Fivefold Gospel’ pp. 38–39.

22

YongDays of Caesar p. 166.

23

YongDays of Caesar p. 257.

26

McQueenEschatology p. 203.

27

McQueenEschatology p. 214.

28

McQueenEschatology pp. 219 279–80.

29

Andy Lord‘Good News for All? Reflections on the Pentecostal Full Gospel’Transformation 30. 1 (2013) pp. 17–30.

30

Lord‘Good News for All?’ p. 24.

31

Wonsuk Ma‘David Yonggi Cho’s Theology of Blessing: Basis, Legitimacy, and Limitations’Evangelical Review of Theology 35. 2 (2011) pp. 140–59.

33

ThomasThe Apocalypse p. ix. See also John Christopher Thomas and Frank D. Macchia Revelation. The Two Horizons New Testament Commentary (Grand Rapids mi: Eerdmans 2016) p. xv.

34

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 93–94; Richard Bauckham The Theology of the Book of Revelation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993) p. 75; G.K. Beale The Book of Revelation (nigtc; Grand Rapids mi: Eerdmans 1999) p. 191; Stephen S. Smalley The Revelation to John: A Commentary on the Greek Text of the Apocalypse (Downers Grove: ivp Academic 2005) pp. 35–36.

37

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 225 231. However Smalley points out that ‘the sacrifice of Christ in this hymn appears to be untypically Johannine since its character is objective and indeed Pauline’ (Smalley Revelation to John p. 137).

38

 Cf Laszlo GalluszThe Throne Motif in the Book of Revelation (Library of New Testament Studies 487; London: Bloomsbury2014) p. 153.

39

 Cf McQueenEschatology p. 221.

40

ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 269.

41

 Cf SmalleyRevelation to John p. 519.

42

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 663.

43

 Cf McQueenEschatology pp. 221–25.

44

 Cf McQueenEschatology pp. 227–28.

50

 Cf AndersonIntroduction to Pentecostalism pp. 58–59.

51

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 624–25; Smalley Revelation to John p. 539; McQueen ­Eschatology p. 249.

52

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 275–77; Beale Revelation pp. 441–44.

53

ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 661–62. Cf Koester Revelation pp. 824 835; Beale Revelation pp. 1107–1108; McQueen Eschatology pp. 255–56.

54

ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 661. Comp. McQueen Eschatology pp. 250–51.

55

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 661. see also the discussion in Michael L. Brown Israel’s Divine Healer (Carlisle uk: Paternoster Press 1995) pp. 205–206.

56

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 659 684. However some commentators such as Craig Koester see this as a promise for the future. Cf Koester Revelation p. 857.

59

 Cf ThompsonKingdom Come pp. 144–45.

60

 Cf SmalleyRevelation to John pp. 338–39; Koester Revelation pp. 570–71.

61

 See discussion in ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 386. As Thomas notes the passive here has previously referred to the work of God. Beale contends that the healing of the beast was only apparent (Beale Revelation p. 689).

64

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 149–51.

65

 Cf SmalleyRevelation to John pp. 74–77.

66

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 296.

67

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 295.

68

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 467.

69

 Cf BrownDivine Healer p. 210.

70

 Cf McQueenEschatology pp. 229–30.

71

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 423; Smalley Revelation to John p. 137.

72

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 425–28. Bauckham associates their sexual abstinence with ot rules of war (Theology of Revelation p. 78). Comp. Beale Revelation pp. 738–47.

73

 Cf BauckhamTheology of Revelation pp. 122–23; Smalley Revelation to John pp. 104–105.

75

 Cf KoesterRevelation p. 314.

76

 Cf MacchiaBaptized p. 223.

77

FaupelEverlasting Gospel pp. 29 56–58 230; Yong Renewing Christian Theology pp. 87 107–15; Macchia Baptized pp. 30–31.

78

 Cf McQueenEschatology pp. 231 234.

80

ThompsonKingdom Come pp. 129–40.

81

McQueenEschatology pp. 230–34.

82

McQueenEschatology pp. 237–39.

83

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 44; Bauckham Theology of Revelation pp. 115–16; McQueen Eschatology pp. 240–41.

84

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation pp. 138–50; Thomas The Apocalypse p. 3; Melissa L. Archer ‘I Was in the Spirit on the Lord’s Day’: A Pentecostal Engagement with Worship in the Apocalypse (Cleveland tn: cpt Press 2015) pp. 130 140 175–76. Comp. Skaggs and Benham Revelation p. 27; Bauckham Theology of Revelation p. 116.

85

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation pp. 189 191.

86

 Cf BauckhamTheology of Revelation pp. 119–21; McQueen Eschatology pp. 242–43.

89

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation pp. 174–75; Macchia Baptized p. 162.

90

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 330; Waddell Spirit of Revelation pp. 133 162–63172–73; Bauckham Theology of Revelation pp. 113–15; McQueen Eschatology p. 244.

91

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation pp. 184–85.

92

 See the survey in ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 683. Waddell also argues that the ‘angel’ of Rev. 10 is the Holy Spirit (Waddell Spirit of Revelation pp. 158–60) which seems unlikely. See also Smalley Revelation to John p. 562.

93

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 44.

94

 Cf BauckhamTheology of Revelation p. 117.

95

 Cf KoesterRevelation pp. 376–77 386.

96

 Cf OsborneRevelation p. 257; Beale Revelation p. 351. Smalley points out that elsewhere in Revelation horns are only found in pictures of the enemies of God (Smalley Revelation to John p. 133).

97

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 225–26; Waddell Spirit of Revelation p. 178; Bauckham Theology of Revelation p. 112.

98

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation p. 178.

99

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 226–27; Aune Revelation 1–5 p. 354; Waddell Spirit of Revelation p. 177; Koester Revelation p. 377.

100

 Cf OsborneRevelation pp. 421–22; Bauckham Theology of Revelation pp. 110–11.

102

 Cf BauckhamTheology of Revelation p. 112; Koester Revelation p. 387.

103

ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 23 225 227. This is a controversial area tied in with discussions of authorship and ‘Johannine schools’ but I think Thomas’ argument is strong. Cf Stephen S. Smalley Thunder and Love: John’s Revelation and John’s Community (Milton Keynes uk: Word Publishing 1994) pp. 37–40 57–63 67–69. Elisabeth Schüssler Fiorenza has argued against such close links (The Book of Revelation: Justice and Judgment [Minneapolis mn: Fortress Press 1998] pp. 85–113). But she conceded that ‘an author could have access to various Christian traditions’ (p. 101). If so then the audience of Revelation could also be familiar with traditions related to John.

106

 Comp. ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 227; Osborne Revelation p. 257; Bauckham Theology of Revelation pp. 112–13; Waddell Spirit of Revelation pp. 177–78 189; Waddell ‘Apocalypse of John according to Craig R. Koester’ p. 20. Smalley speaks of the ‘seven spirits’ being ‘sent out on a mission to the whole world’ (Smalley Revelation to John p. 33; see also p. 133).

111

 Cf YongRenewing Christian Theology p. 101; Bock Acts pp. 400–401 409–10 499–500; Peterson Acts pp. 339–41 343–49 425–26; Keener Actsii pp. 1809–812 1825–828.

113

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation p. 175; Thomas The Apocalypse pp. 330–31.

114

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation p. 165 172–73. Waddell sees measuring as representing ‘divine protection of God’s people’ (pp. 165 167–68). Aune argues it ‘signifies preservation’ (Aune Revelation 6–16 p. 630). However in at least some cases measuring is connected to construction (Isa. 28.16–17; Jer. 31.38–39; Ezekiel 40–42; Zech. 1.16; 4.9–10).

115

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation pp. 166 174. Other interpretations of the temple in Revelation 11 are possible: it could be the second temple a future ‘third temple’ the temple in heaven or something else but I think seeing it as the church is at least feasible in view of Rev. 1.20 and makes sense of the ‘protection and vulnerability’ that Thomas notes (Thomas The Apocalypse p. 327; see surrounding discussion in pp. 324–27). See also discussion in Aune Revelation 6–16 pp. 596–98.

116

 Cf BauckhamTheology of Revelation pp. 86–88; Waddell Spirit of Revelation pp. 187–88; Thomas The Apocalypse p. 342; Aune Revelation 6–16 pp. 628–29. (Aune argues strongly that ‘gave glory to God’ equals conversion). But see discussion in Allan J. McNicol The Conversion of the Nations in Revelation (London: T & T Clark International 2011) pp. 9–10 123–27.

117

FaupelEverlasting Gospel p. 21. Cf Yong Renewing Christian Theology p. 15; Peter Althouse Spirit of the Last Days (JPTSup 25; London: T & T Clark International 2003) p. 1.

118

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 95; Osborne Revelation pp. 69–70; McQueen Eschatology p. 258.

120

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 668.

121

 Cf FaupelEverlasting Gospel pp. 30–31 308; Anderson Introduction to Pentecostalism p. 44; Althouse Last Days pp. 1 10 18–19.

122

 Cf KoesterRevelation pp. 838–39.

123

 Already by 1908it was clear that this ‘imminence’ would not be realised in the way expected by the Pentecostals (cf Faupel Everlasting Gospel p. 228). Smalley argues that in Revelation the Parousia is ‘perpetually imminent’ (Smalley Revelation to John pp. 37 568).

124

 See discussion in KoesterRevelation pp. 850–51.

132

McQueenEschatology p. 259.

133

 See discussion in AuneRevelation 1–5 pp. 188 221–22. Beale concludes that Christ’s ‘coming’ in Revelation ‘is understood better as a process occurring throughout history’ and concluded with his ‘final’ coming (Revelation p. 198). Comp. Smalley Revelation to John p. 83.

134

 Cf McQueenEschatology pp. 261–62.

136

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 574–83; Smalley Revelation to John pp. 488–90.

137

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 574.

139

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse pp. 603–606; Osborne Revelation pp. 706–708; Waddell Spirit of Revelation pp. 147–48.

140

 Cf WaddellSpirit of Revelation p. 142.

141

R. Alastair Campbell‘Triumph and delay: the interpretation of Revelation 19:11–20:10’Evangelical Quarterly 80.1 (2008) p. 4.

143

McQueenEschatology pp. 262–68.

144

 But see OsborneRevelation p. 691.

146

 E.g. McQueenEschatology p. 269.

147

 Cf YongRenewing Christian Theology p. 33; Thompson Kingdom Come pp. 49 52–53.

148

 E.g. Duffield and Van CleaveFoundations pp. 519–46; see Althouse Last Days pp. 9–44 and McQueen Eschatology Chapters 3–4 on the historical development of Pentecostal eschatology and Warrington Pentecostal Theology pp. 311–13 regarding shifts in millennial thinking among uk Pentecostals in recent years.

149

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 592.

150

 Cf SmalleyRevelation to John pp. 500–505; Beale Revelation pp. 974–83. See arguments against this line of thinking in Newton ‘Time Language’ pp. 156–60.

151

 E.g. BauckhamTheology of Revelation pp. 107–108.

152

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 598; Beale Revelation pp. 985–89; McQueen Eschatology p. 270.

153

 Cf ThomasThe Apocalypse p. 668.

156

 Cf ThompsonKingdom Come pp. 139 152–53.

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