The Politics of Market Relations in a Nutshell

The Hazelnut Market in Turkey

in Perspectives on Global Development and Technology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


In 2000, with the Agricultural Reform Implementation Project (arip) initiated by the World Bank in Turkey, the agricultural market entered a liberalization process. However, the arip policies were not implemented as envisaged. By means of a case study approach, this paper analyses the reasons for the failure of the arip policies in the hazelnut market. The technical reforms introduced by international institutions disregard local lives, as well as the impact of these reforms on the local people. The legislative changes, including the controversies and crises, have met strong resistance at the local level. In light of the local configurations of power and exchange relations, the locality creates the conflict and controversy surrounding the liberalization policies. This study examines the process of liberalization, focusing on the hazelnut market characteristics, the politics of market relations, policy-making, and pricing between 2001 and 2009 in Turkey.



ApeldoornB. BeilerA.MortonA. D. The Struggle over European Order: Transnational Class Agency in the making of Embedded Neo-Liberalism Social Forces in the making of New Europe: The Restructuring of European Social Relations in the Global Political Economy 2001 Basingstoke Palgrave 70 89

arip Report No. PID9405 2002 accessed on December 12, 2006 http.//www–

AydınZ. Neo-Liberal Transformation of Turkish Agriculture Journal of Agrarian Change 2010 10 2 149 187

BotterillL.MazurN. Risk and Risk Perception: A Literature Review 2004 Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation Barton

BozoğluM. Econometric Analysis of Hazelnut Productivity in Ordu and Giresun Provinces Acta Horticulturae 2001a 556 125 129

BozoğluM. A Comparative Analysis of Hazelnut Production and Trade Policies between Turkey and the European Union Acta Horticulturae 2001b 556 73 79

BozoğluM. The Reform of Hazelnut Policy in Turkey Acta Horticulturae 2005a 686 517 524

BozoğluM. The Situation of the Hazelnut Sector in Turkey Acta Horticulturae 2005b 686 641 648

CallonM.LascoumesP.BartheY. BurchellG. Acting in an Uncertain World: An Essay on Technical Democracy 2009 USA Massachusetts Institute of Technology 2009

2006 3 Conference Proceedings Giresun Milli Findik Surasi [3rd National Hazelnut Conference 10-14 October 2004 Proceeding Book]

ÇalışkanK.AdamanF. KarapınarB.AdamanF.OzertanG. The Logic of Neoliberal Agricultural Reform Initiatives: Perspectives and Consequences Rethinking Structural Reform in Turkish Agriculture: Beyond the World Bank’s Strategy 2010 Nova Science Publishers 87 103

Royal Court of Justice 2009 accessed on January 18, 2010 ewhc 1276 (Ch) Case No: HCO3C02596. London.

Ferrero New Ferrero Plant to Open in Turkey in 2013 2011 accessed on November 06, 2011 Ferrero Official Website:

Ferrero The Ferrero Group continues investing in Turkey and in the hazelnut sector 2014 accessed on November 06, 2014 Ferrero Official Website:

GüvenA. B. Reforming sticky institutions: Persistence and change in Turkish agriculture Studies in Comparative International Development 2009 44 2 162 187

HallP. A.SoskiceD. Varieties of Capitalism 2001 New York Oxford University Press

HardakerJ. B.HuirneR. B. M.AndersonJ. R.LienG. Coping with Risk in Agriculture 2004 London CABI Publishing

İslamoğluH. Yeni Düzenlemeler ve Ekonomi Politik: imf Kaynaklı Kurumsal. Reformlar ve Tütün Yasası [New Regulations and Political Economy: imf-based institutional reforms and Tobacco Law] 2002 158 20 27 Birikim

İslamoğluH. GluckC.TsingA. L. Komisyon/Commission and Kurul/Board: Words that Rule Words in Motion: Towards a Global Lexicon 2009 Duke University Press

KeyderÇ.YenalZ. Agrarian Change under Globalization: Markets and Insecurity in Turkish Agriculture Journal of Agrarian Change 2011 11 1 60 86

KöseA.ŞensesF.YeldanE. Neoliberal Globalization as New Imperialism: Case Studies on Reconstruction of the Periphery 2007 New York NOVA Science

LundellMarkLampiettiJulianPertevRashidPohlmeierLorenzAkderHalisOcekEbruJhaShreyasi Turkey: A Review of the Impact of the Reform of Agricultural Sector Subsidization. Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Unit Europe and Central Asia Region 2004 Washington D.C. The World Bank

MarrisP. The Politics of Uncertainty: Attachment in Private and Public Life 1996 London Routledge

2008 Meeting between the National Hazelnut Council members and the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry February 20-21, 2008 Meeting Minutes

Official Gazette (Resmi Gazete) 2009 July 15 accessed on March 18, 2011 (15 Temmuz).

ÖnişZ. BurnellP. Globalization and Party Transformation: Turkey’s Justice and Development Party in Perspective Warwick Studies on Globalization 2006 London Routledge 122 140

ÖnişZ. Beyond the 2001 Financial Crisis: The Political Economy of the New Phase of Neo-liberal Restructuring in Turkey Review of International Political Economy 2009 6 3 409 432

ÖnişZ.AlperE. The Turkish Banking System, Financial Crises, and the imf in the Age of Capital Account Liberalization: A Political Economy Perspective New Perspectives on Turkey 2004 30

RodrikD. Why Did Financial Globalization Disappoint? IMF Staff Papers 2009 56 1 112 138

Tarım Dünyası ‘Fındıkta kazanma vakti mi?’ Tarim Dünyası 2009 July 14 accessed on March 21, 2011 2009.

TekinEbru The Politics of Uncertainty in a Global Market: The Hazelnut Exchange and its Production 2012 Boğaziçi University, Istanbul Turkey Unpublished PhD Thesis

YalçınkayaT. Is Turkish Capitalism Consistent with Capitalist Globalization? Local-Global 2009 6 78 92

ZenginobuzÜ. On Regulatory Agencies in Turkey and Their Independence Turkish Studies 2008 9 3 475 505


In 2012, Ferrero founded a company in Turkey to buy and store hazelnuts against price volatilities. It also plans to build a production plant, to be completed in 2013, in Manisa, in the immediate vicinity of the Izmir port, in west Turkey (Ferrero, 2011). Therefore, there are attempts by global market actors (i.e. Ferrero) to enter the local market directly. In 2014, Ferrero acquired Oltan Group, the largest hazelnut exporter in Turkey (Ferrero, 2014).


Until 2001, the government had subsidized agricultural credit and Agricultural Credit Cooperatives through the Ziraat Bank (a state bank of Turkey). However, in the period of 2000-2002, higher interest rates and low debt carrying capacity resulted in debt delinquency and debt write-offs to farmers, which led to a restructuring of the credit system financed by the Ziraat Bank. Law No. 4876 on the Restructuring Farmers’ Debts Law and Agricultural Credit Cooperatives (accs) was initiated in order to restructure the credits provided by Ziraat Bank.


Until 1994, unregistered hazelnut producers were able to give their hazelnuts to Fiskobirlik, but after 1994 only Fiskobirlik members could do so.


Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 5 5 4
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 1 1 1
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0