The word “cosmopolitanism” is often used to describe a form of civic universalism that in the view of some contemporary philosophers is a well-matched response to present circumstances. Given that the fact of pluralism is among the salient features of these circumstances, how does contemporary thinking on cosmopolitanism suggest that we resolve the ethical dilemmas that cultural differences presents? As early as 308bc the Stoics taught on the use of reason and autonomy in the individual. Self control was believed to be a method to achieve virtue, wisdom, and unbiased character. The Stoics believed in the development of clear judgment through logic and experience.
ArnesonRichard J.CullenbergStephenPattanaikPrasanta K.“Opportunity for Welfare, Priority, and Public Policy”Globalization Culture and the Limits of the Market: Essays in Economics and Philosophy2004New Delhi, IndiaOxford University Press177214