Culture of Science and Science Policy Making: A Qualitative Study of Solar Photovoltaic (spv) Technology Development in India

in Perspectives on Global Development and Technology
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Employing Mode 2 science perspective, the present study attempts to understand the interaction of culture of science and science policy making in Solar Photovoltaic (spv) research and technology development in India. Despite an early start, India has been lacking in the process of development and deployment of spv technologies since the 1960s. The study explores the factors that affected the spv research and technology development programmes in India. Using in-depth and semi-structured interviews, data were collected from scientists located in different academic and R&D institutions engaged in production of application oriented knowledge. The study points out that over time the conditions of spv research have been mediated by the problematic construction of public policy making in the area of energy. Unimaginative and half-hearted approach to policy making contributed to discontinuous production of knowledge and made spv technology and industrial development insignificant. This kind of ambience produced multiple effects like little or no interaction between academia-industry interaction, and crisis in the production of scientific knowledge, alienation of scientific community. The study concludes that spv science and technology development was considered at one stage as inappropriate to the Indian context for various reasons, and consequently failed to develop the strategic and commercial area of research like silicon.

Culture of Science and Science Policy Making: A Qualitative Study of Solar Photovoltaic (spv) Technology Development in India

in Perspectives on Global Development and Technology

Sections

References

AbrolDinesh K. 1995. “Colonised Minds or Progressive Nationalist Scientists: The Science and Culture Group.” Pp. 265-289 in Technology and the Raj. Edited by R. MacLeod and D. Kumar. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

AbrolDinesh K.V. Upadhyay and P. Sikka. 2008. “Financing of S&T in India.” In India Science and Technology: 2008. New Delhi: NISTADS.

AmirSulfikar and Yanuar Nugroho. 2013. “Beyond the Triple Helix: Framing sts in the Developmental Context.” Bulletin of Science Technology & Society 20(10):1-12.

ArumugamV. and Karuna Jain. 2012. “Technology Transfer from Indian Higher Technical Institutions to the Industry in India: A Case Study of Bombay.” Journal of Intellectual Property Rights 17(2):141-151.

ChandraN. 2010. “Knowledge Transfer Strategies at Indian Institutes of Technology.” Pp. 222-259 in Liberalizing Research in Sciences and Technology: Studies in Science Policy. Edited by N. P. Asheulova. Saint-Petersburg: Politechnika.

Committee on Solar Energy. 1974. Solar Energy: Promise & Challenge. New Delhi, India: National Committe on Science & Technology and Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.

DeshmukhRanjitAshwin Gambhir and Girish Sant. 2010. “Need to Realign India’s National Solar Mission.” Economic Political Weekly 45(12):41-50.

DevarajP. and E. Haribabu. 2015. “Discontinuities in Solar Photovoltaic Technology Development in India.” Perspectives on Global Development and Technology 14(3):301-322.

DicksonDavid. 1988. The New Politics of Science. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

DuttBharvi and Khaiser Nikam. 2013. “Solar Cell Research in India: A Scientometric Profile.” Annals of Library and Information Studies 60(2):115-127.

EtzkowitzHenry. 1998. “The norms of entrepreneurial science: cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages.” Research Policy 27(8):823-833.

EtzkowitzHenry and Loet Leydesdorff. 1998. “The Endless Transition: A ‘Triple Helix’ of Industry-University-Government Relations.” Minerva 36(3):203-208.

EtzkowitzHenry and Loet Leydesdorff. 2000. “The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations.” Research Policy 29(2):109-123.

FagerbergJan and Koson Sapprasert. 2011. “National innovation system: the emergence of a new approach.” Science and Public Policy 38(9):669-679.

FrickelScott and Kelly Moore (Eds.) 2006. The New Political Sociology of Science: Institutions Network and Power. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

GhoshA. 1991. “Eighth Plan: Challenges and Opportunities-V: Energy: Overall Scenario, Rural Energy, Renewable Sources and Oil and Natural Gas.” Economic and Political Weekly 26(7):331-337.

GibbonsMichael and B. Wittrock. 1985. Science as a Commodity: Threat to Open Community Scholars. Essex: Longman Group Limited.

GibbonsMichaelCamille LimogesHelga NowotnySimon SchwartzmanPeter ScottMartin Trow. 1994. The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamics of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. LondonSage Publications.

GoelMaltiVandana Maurya and Pranav N. Desai. 2013. “R&D Indicators and Mapping Solar Energy Research Ouput in India.” Journal of Scientometric Research 2(1):52-58.

Government of India. 2008. Report on Technologically Important Crystal. New Delhi: Office of the Principle Scientific Advisor to the Government of India.

GuptaNamrata. 2010. “Doctoral Research Environment in an Indian Institute of Higher Learning in Science and Technology.” Science Technology Society 15(1):113-133.

HardingSandra. 2008. “Co-evolving Science and Society: Gibbons, Nowotny, and Scott.” Pp. 75-101 in Sciences from Below: Feminisms Postcolonialities and Modernities Edited by Sandra Harding. Durham and London: Duke University Press.

Harriss-WhiteBarbaraSunali Rohra and Nigel Singh. 2009. “Political Architecture for India’s Technology System for Solar Energy.” Economic Political Weekly 44(47):49-60.

HesselsLaurens K. and Harro van Lente. 2009. “Re-thinking new knowledge production: A literature review and a research agenda.” Science Technology and Innovation Studies 37(4):740-760.

JairathVinod K. 1984. “In Search of Roots- the Indian Scientific Community.” Contributions to Indian Sociology 18(1):109-130.

KatrakHomi. 1997. “The Private Use of Publicly Funded Industrial Technologies in Developing Countries: Empirical Tests for an Industrial Research Institute in India.” World Development 25(9):1541-1550.

KleinmanDaniel Lee. 2003. Impure Culture: University Biology and the World of Commerce. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press.

KleinmanDaniel Lee and Steven P. Vallas. 2001. “Science, Capitalism, and the Rise of the ‘Knowledge Worker’: The Changing Structure of Knowledge Production in the United States.” Theory and Society 30(4):451-492.

KrishnaV. V. 1991. “The Emergence of Indian Scientific Community.” Sociological Bulletin 40(1-2):89-109.

KrishnaV. V. (1995). Organisation of Industrial Research: The Early History of CSIR, 1934-1947. Pp. 289-324 in Technology and the Raj: Western Technology and Technical Transfers to India 1700-1947. Edited by Roy MacLeod and Deepak Kumar. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

KrishnaV. V. 2001a. “Changing policy cultures, phases and trends in science and technology in India.” Science and Public Policy 28(3):179-194.

KrishnaV. V. 2001b. “Reflections on the Changing Status of Academic Science in India.” International Social Science Journal 53(168):231-246.

KrishnaV. V. and Nimesh Chandra. 2009. Knowledge Production and Knowledge Transfer: A Study of Two Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Madras and IIT Bombay). Singapore: Asia Research Institute, National Singapore University.

KrishnaV.V.Roland Waast and Jacques Gaillard. 2000. “The Changing Structure of Science in Developing Countries.” Science Technology Society 5(2):209-224.

KumarDeepak. 2009. “Reconstructing India: Disunity in the Science and Technology for Development Discourse, 1900-47.” Pp. 352-376 in Social History of Science in Colonial India. Edited by I. S. Habib. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

LundvallBengt-Åke. 2007. “Innovation System Research: Where it came from and where it might go.” Globelics Working Paper 2007-2001. (http://www.globelics.org/article/innovation-system-research-where-it-came-from-and-where-it-might-go/).

ManiS. 1990. “Biotechnology Research in India: Implication for Indian Public Sector Enterprises.” Economic and Political Weekly 25(34):M115-M123.

MehtaP. K. and A. Sarma2001. “India: Coping with the Challenges of the Global Technology Order.” Science Technology Society 6(1):23-60.

NandagopalMagesh. 2013. “Commercializing technologies from universities and research institutes in India: some insights from the us experience.” Current Science 104(2):183-189.

NandyAshis. 1990. Science Hegemony & Violence: A Requiem For Modernity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

nistads. 2011. Understanding Innovation: The Indian Context. New Delhi: CSIR-National Institute of Science, Technology and Development Studies.

NowotnyHelga. 2000. “The Production of Knowledge beyond the Academy and the Market: A Reply to Dominique Pestre.” Science Technology and Society 5(2):183.

NowotnyHelgaPeter Scott and Michael Gibbons. 2001. Re-Thinking Science: Knowledge and the Public in an Age of Uncertainty. London: Polity Press.

NowotnyHelgaPeter Scott and Michael Gibbons. 2003. “‘Mode 2’ Revisited: The New Production of Knowledge.” Minerva 41(3):179194.

NowotnyHelgaDomnique PestreEberhard Schmidt-AbmannHelmuth Schule-Fielitz and Hans-Heinrich Trute. 2005. The Public Nature of Science Under Assault. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.

PrasadAmit. 2006. “Beyond Modern vs Alternative Science Debate: Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Research.” Economic and Political Weekly 41(3):219-227.

RayA. S. 2004. “The Changing Structure of R&D Incentives in India: The Pharmaceutical Sector.” Science Technology Society 9(2):295-317.

ReddyAmulya K. N. 1999. “Goals, Strategies and Policies for Rural Energy.” Economic and Political Weekly 34(49):3435-3445.

SardanaDeepak and V.V. Krishna. 2006. “Government, University and Industry Relations: The Case of Biotechnology in the Delhi Region.” Science Technology and Society 11(2):351-377.

SinghN. 2012. “The Role of the National Solar Mission in Climate Change Mitigation and the Twin Objective of Energy Security.” Strategic Analysis 36(2):260-275.

SinhaBikramjit 2011b. . “Trends in Global Solar Photovoltaic Research: Silicon Versus non-Silicon Materials.” Current Science 100(5):654-660.

SinhaBikramjit and Kirti Joshi. 2012. “Analysis of India’s Solar Photovoltaic Research Output.” Annals of Library and Information Studies 59:10-121.

SwaminanthanP. 1995. Budgetary Silences. Economic and Poltical Weekly 30(22):1329-1332.

United National Enivornment Programme.2010. Patents and Clean Energy: Bridiging the Gap Between Evidence and Policy. MediengruppeUniversalMunich: UNEP, EPO, ICTSD. Retrived December 12 2012 (http://www.unep.ch/etb/events/UNEP%20EPO%20ICTSD%20Event%2030%20Sept%202010%20Brussels/Study%20Patents%20and%20clean%20energy_15.9.10.pdf).

UberoiJ.P.S. 2002. The European Modernity: Science Truth and Method. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

VisvanathanShiv. 1985. Organizing for Science: The Making of an Industrial Research Laboratory.New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

VisvanathanShiv. 1997. A Carnival for Science: Essays on Science Technology and Development. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

VisvanathanShiv. 2002. “The Laboratory and the World: Conversation with C. V. Seshadri.” Economic and Political Weekly 37(22):2163-2170.

VisvanathanS. 2009. “The Rise of Industrial Research.” Pp. 291-325 in Social History of Science in Colonial India. Edited by I. A. Habib. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

ZimanJohn. 1996a. “‘Postacademic Science’: Constructing Knowledge with Networks and Norms.” Science Studies 9(1):67-80.

ZimanJohn. 1996b. “Is Science Losing its Objectivity?” Nature 382(29):751-754.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 19 19 6
Full Text Views 12 12 12
PDF Downloads 3 3 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0