The series of uprising that swept from Wall Street in 2011 to Hong Kong in 2014 are described as embodying a “leaderless” form of organizing. With no centralized organizational structure, these contemporary movements are often thought to be a new form of politics that is far more participatory and spontaneous than the tradition of revolutionary communism inaugurated by the Bolsheviks in 1917. However, such a stark contrast suppresses the similarities between past and present revolts, and obscures how the experience of the former can still contribute to the latter.
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BookbinderAlex and PatrickBoehler. 2014. “Jimmy Lai paid Paul Wolfowitz us $75,000 for help in Myanmar.”South China Morning Post. July23. (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1557390/jimmy-lai-paid-paul-wolfowitz-us75000-help-myanmar).
Kang-chungNg. 2014. “ ‘I’m not a Spy,’ says Jimmy Lai’s Right-hand Man Mark Simon.”South China Morning Post. August11. (http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1570781/im-not-spy-says-jimmy-lais-right-hand-man-mark-simon).
LinZhongxuan and Shih-DiingLiu. 2016. “Occupation as Prefiguration? The Emergence of a New Political Form in the Occupy Central Movement.”Contemporary Chinese Political Economy and Strategic Relations2(2): 775-794.