1 1Departamento de Modelación Matemática de Sistemas Sociales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico;, Email: email@example.com
2 2Departamento de Modelación Matemática de Sistemas Sociales, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico;, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
The world's arrival into the era of knowledge is changing the perception of the role of science and technology in society. A good part of the scientific production appears to be linked to the needs of the global market. However, in the past few years, attempts at new forms of “doing science” have appeared throughout the globe that were very different from the current trends. Although these new forms share some characteristics that resemble those of “Mode 2,” as generally defined by Gibbons and associates in 1994, they differ drastically in the sense that they really are more socially accountable (i.e., at the grassroots level). These modes responded to a need for making scientific research more participative, more socially responsible, incorporating not only the scientists in the decision-making process but also those who have a stake in the results. In this paper, these path-breaking efforts of doing research in two Latin American countries are discussed and a comparison is made with the characteristics of Mode 2. Both cases are strongly based on the New Information and Communication Technologies (NICT). It is concluded that some segments of societies are concerned with the consequences of scientific research and are putting into practice alternative models that confront the current global trend. These models merit broader awareness and approach.