Cultures of Comparative Philology in the Early Modern Indo-Persian World

In: Philological Encounters
View More View Less
  • 1 Northwestern University

Login via Institution

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

This article surveys the deep history of the discipline of comparative philology in the Indo-Persian world, and attempts to situate it within larger debates about global forms of intellectual modernity. From its early beginnings in the production of literary lexicons designed to help poets in different regional centers of the Persianate world understand each other’s works, comparative philology in South, Central, and West Asia developed into a key scholarly discipline in which a whole host of concerns relating to Indo-Persian intellectual life was negotiated: literary canon formation, the arbitration of good taste, the maintenance of cosmopolitan literary intelligibility in an increasingly vernacular world, and even the nature of language itself. These developments took place over many centuries, in a vast array of works, spread out over a vast region that stretched from Anatolia to India. But in their increasingly sophisticated scholarship, as well as their increasing cognizance of their own scholarly disciplinarity, we find several distinctly “modernizing” tendencies among many of the Indo-Persian philologists discussed here, long before the supposed “invention” of the discipline by western scholars like the British colonial judge and orientalist, Sir William Jones (1746-1794).

  • ʿAbdullah Sayyid Muhammad Mabāḥis̤: Dāktar Sayyid ʿAbdullah ke Taḥqīqī wa Tanqīdī Maẓāmīn 1965 Lahore Majlis-i Taraqqī-yi Adab

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ʿAbdullah Sayyid Muhammad Adabiyāt-i Fārsī meṇ Hindūʾon ka Ḥiṣṣa 1967 Lahore Majlis Taraqqī-yi Adab

  • ʿAbdullah Sayyid Muhammad Mahmud Sayyid Fayyaz “Lug̲h̲āt, Zabān-dānī wa Zabān-āmūzī, Sharḥen, Farhang, [aur] Qawāʿid.” Fārsī Adab: Part 3 (1707-1971) 1972 Lahore Punjab University Press 382 401 edited by Sayyid Fayyaz Mahmud and Sayyid Wazir al-Hasan ʿAbidi (with the assistance of ʿAbd al-Ghani). Vol. 5 of Tārīkh-i Adabiyāt-i Musalmānān-i Pāk wa Hind

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ʿAbdullah Sayyid Muhammad “Dād-i Sukhan: Tanqīd kī Kitāb.” Fārsī Zabān wa Adab: Majmūʿa-yi Maqālāt az Dāktar Sayyid ʿAbdullah 1977 Lahore Majlis-i Taraqqī-yi Adab 142 7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ʿAbd al-Rashid Thattawi ʿAbbasi Muhammad Farhang-i Rashīdī 1958 Tehran Kitābkhāna-yi Bārānī 2 vols.

  • Ahmad Nazir “The Dastūruʾl-Afaẓil.” Indo-Iranica 1967 20 no. 4 23 46

  • Ahmadi Wali “The Institution of Persian Literature the Genealogy of Bahar’s Stylistics.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 2004 31 no. 2 141 52

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahsan ʿAbd al-Shakur Baqir Muhammad & Mirza Wahid “Lug̲h̲at-Nigārī.” Fārsī Adab: Part 1 (1000-1526) 1971 Lahore Punjab University Press 386 401 Vol. 3 of Tārīkh-i Adabiyāt-i Musalmānān-i Pāk wa Hind, edited by Sayyid Fayyaz Mahmud

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahsan ʿAbd al-Shakur Badakhshani Maqbul Beg Mahmud Sayyid Fayyaz “Lug̲h̲at-Nigārī.” Fārsī Adab: Part 2 (1526-1707) 1971 Lahore Punjab University Press 838 55 Vol. 4 of Tārīkh-i Adabiyāt-i Musalmānān-i Pāk wa Hind

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alam Muzaffar “The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics.” Modern Asian Studies 1998 32 no. 2 317 349

  • Alam Muzaffar Pollock Sheldon “The Culture and Politics of Persian in Precolonial Hindustan.” Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia 2003 Berkeley University of California Press 131 198

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alam Muzaffar The Languages of Political Islam: India 1200-1800 2004 Chicago University of Chicago Press

  • Alam Muzaffar & Subrahmanyam Sanjay “The Making of a Munshi.” Comparative Studies in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 2004 24 no. 2 61 72

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alam Muzaffar & Subrahmanyam Sanjay Indo-Persian Travels in the Age of Discoveries, 1400-1800 2007 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press

  • al-Khalili Jim The House of Wisdom: How Arabic Science Saved Ancient Knowledge and Gave us the Renaissance 2011 New York The Penguin Press

  • Arberry A. J Classical Persian Literature 1994 Richmond, Surrey Curzon Press

  • Arzu Siraj al-Din ʿAli Khan Siyaqi Muhammad Dabir Farhang-i Chirāg̲h̲-i Hidāyat 1959 Tehran Maʿrifat

  • Arzu Siraj al-Din ʿAli Khan Ikram S. M. Dād-i Sukhan 1974 Rawalpindi Markaz-i Tahqīqāt-i Fārsī-yi Īrān wa Pākistān

  • Arzu Siraj al-Din ʿAli Khan Ikram S. M. Sirāj-i Munīr 1977 Islamabad Markaz-i Tahqīqāt-i Fārsī-yi Īrān wa Pākistān

  • Arzu Siraj al-Din ʿAli Khan Mus̤mir 1991 Karachi Institute of Central & West Asian Studies Edited by Raihana Khatun. Foreword by Abu al-Lays Siddiqi

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arzu Siraj al-Din ʿAli Khan Shamisa Sirus ʿAt̤iya-i Kubrá wa Mauhibat-i ʿUz̤má (Nukhustīn Risālāt ba Zabān-i Fārsī dar Bayān-o-Maʿānī) 2002 Tehran Chapkhana-yi Ramin

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Asadi Tusi ʿAli ibn Ahmad Lug̲h̲at-i Furs 1957 Tehran Kitābkhāna-yi Ṭuhūrī

  • Baevskii Solomon I Killian N. Early Persian Lexicography: Farhangs of the Eleventh to the Fifteenth Centuries 2007 Folkestone, UK Global Oriental Revised and updated by John R. Perry

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bakhtawar Khan Muhammad Alvi Sajida S. Mirʾāt al-ʿĀlam: Tārīkh-i Aurangzeb 1979 Lahore Idarah-i Tahqiqat-i Pakistan, Danishgah-i Punjab 2 vols.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balfour Francis Inshā-yi Harkaran = The Forms of Herkern Corrected from a Variety of Manuscripts, Supplied with the Distinguishing Marks of Construction, and Translated into English: With an Index of Arabic Words Explained, and Arranged Under Their Proper Roots 1781 Calcutta Printed at Calcutta by Charles Wilkins

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bernstein Jeremy “Chess & Sanskrit: Persian Jones in Old Calcutta.” nyrblog (blog), The New York Review of Books 2010 November 2 Accessed on June 26, 2013 http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2010/nov/02/chess-sanskrit-persian-jones-old-calcutta

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blochmann Heinrich Ferdinand (a.k.a“Henry”) “Contributions to Persian Lexicography.” Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 1868 37 no. 1 1 72

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bronner Yigal & Shulman David “ ‘A Cloud Turned Goose’: Sanskrit in the Vernacular Millennium.” Indian Economic and Social History Review 2006 43 no. 1 1 30

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bronner Yigal, Cox Whitney & McCrea Lawrence South Asian Texts in History: Critical Engagements with Sheldon Pollock 2011 Ann Arbor, MI Association for Asian Studies

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown Katherine Butler “Hindustani Music in the Time of Aurangzeb.” 2003 PhD diss., School of Oriental and African Studies (soas), University of London

    • Export Citation
  • Browne Edward Granville A Literary History of Persia 1997 Bethesda, Md. Iranbooks 4 vols

  • Burhan Tabrizi Muhammad Husain ibn Khalaf Farhang-i Burhān-i Qāt̤iʿ 1939 Tehran Shirkat-i Tabʿ-i Kitāb 2 vols.

  • Busch Allison Poetry of Kings: The Classical Hindi Literature of Mughal India 2011 Oxford Oxford University Press

  • Cannon Garland H. & Brine Kevin R. Objects of Enquiry: The Life, Contributions, and Influences of Sir William Jones, 1746-1794 1995 New York New York University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cawdrey Robert The First English Dictionary, 1604: Robert Cawdrey’s A Table Alphabetical 2007 Oxford Bodleian Library

  • Cohn Bernard. S Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India 1996 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press

  • Considine John Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage 2008 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Das Sisir Kumar Sahibs and Munshis: An Account of the College of Fort William 1978 New Delhi Orion Publications

  • Davy William White Joseph “Letter to Joseph White, September 24, 1779.” A Specimen of the Civil and Military Institutes of Timour, or Tamerlane: A Work Written Originally by that Celebrated Conqueror in the Mogul Language, and since Translated into Persian. Now First Rendered from the Persian into English, from a ms. in the Possession of William Hunter, m.d. f.r.s. Physician Extraordinary to the Queen. With other Pieces 1780 Oxford Clarendon Press 28 39

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Blois Francois Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey; Volume v: Poetry of the Pre-Mongol Period 2004 2nd rev. edition London; New York RoutledgeCurzon, in association with the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dirks Nicholas B The Scandal of Empire: India and the Creation of Imperial Britain 2006 Cambridge, MA Belknap Press of Harvard University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dudney Arthur “A Desire for Meaning: Khān-i Ārzū’s Philology and the Place of India in the Eighteenth-Century Persianate World.” 2013 PhD diss., Columbia University

    • Export Citation
  • Ethé Hermann Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the Library of the India Office (Volume i) 1903 Oxford Printed for the India Office by Horace Hart, Printer to the University

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faruqi Ibrahim Qawam Dabiran Hakimeh Sharafnāma-yi Manerī, yā Farhang-i Ibrāhīmī 2006 Tehran Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies 2 vols.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fisher Michael H Counterflows to Colonialism: Indian Travellers and Settlers in Britain, 1600-1857 2004 Delhi Permanent Black

  • Fisher Michael H Chatterjee Kumkum & Hawes Clement “Seeing England Firsthand: Women and Men from Imperial India, 1614-1769.” Europe Observed: Multiple Gazes in Early Modern Encounters 2008 Lewisburg Bucknell University Press 143 71

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franklin Michael Orientalist Jones: Sir William Jones, Poet, Lawyer, and Linguist, 1746-1794 2011 Oxford Oxford University Press

  • Gladwin Francis A Narrative of the Transactions in Bengal. During the Soobahdaries of Azeem-Us-Shan, Jaffar Khan, Shuja Khan, Sirafraz Khan and Alyvardy Khan 1788 Calcutta Press of Stuart & Cooper

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gladwin Francis The Persian Moonshee 1795 Calcutta printed at the Chronicle Press

  • Gutas Dmitri Greek Thought, Arabic Culture: The Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement in Baghdad and Early ʿAbbāsid Society 1998 London; New York Routledge

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hadley George Introductory Grammatical Remarks on the Persian Language, 1776 1972 Menston Scolar Press (Facsimile reprint.)

  • Hajib-i Khairat Dihlavi Ahmad Nazir Dastūr Al-Afāẓil 1973 Tehran Bunyād-i Farhang-i Īrān

  • Hanaway William L Spooner Brian & Hanaway William L. “Secretaries, Poets, and the Literary Language.” Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order 2012 Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology 95 142

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris Lucian “Archibald Swinton: A New Source for Albums of Indian Miniatures in William Beckford’s Collection.” The Burlington Magazine 2001 143 no. 1179 360 66

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hunsberger Alice C Nasir Khusraw, the Ruby of Badakhshan: A Portrait of the Persian Poet, Traveller and Philosopher 2000 London I. B. Tauris

  • Ibrahim Badr al-Din Ahmad Nazir Farhang-i Zafān-Gūyā 1989 Vol. 1. Patna Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Public Library

  • Inju Jamal al-Din Husain Lakhnavī Muhammad Sadiq ʿAli Ghālib Farhang-i Jahāngīrī 1876 Lucknow Matbaʿ-i Khāss-i Samar-i Hind

  • Inju Jamal al-Din Husain ʿAfifi Rahim Farhang-i Jahāngīrī 1980 2nd edition Mashhad University Press 3 volumes

  • Iʿtisam al-Din Mirza Shigurf Namah i Velaët, or, Excellent Intelligence Concerning Europe; Being the Travels of Mirza Itesa Modeen in Great Britain and France English and Hindustani translations by James Edward Alexander, with the assistance of Shumsher Khan Munshi 1827 London Printed for Parbury, Allen

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iʿtisam al-Din Mirza Haq. Kaiser The Wonders of Vilayet: Being the Memoir, Originally in Persian, of a Visit to France and Britain in 1765 2002 Leeds Peepal Tree

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • James George McLeod Anand Ram ʿMukhlisʾ: His Life and Works, 1695-1758 2007 Delhi Henrietta Yasmin James; Dilli Kitab Ghar

  • Jones William A Grammar of the Persian Language 1771 London Printed by W. and J. Richardson

  • Jones William “A Catalogue of Sanscrit, and other Oriental Manuscripts, presented to the Royal Society by Sir William and Lady Jones.” The Works of Sir William Jones, with the Life of the Author, by Lord Teignmouth [a.k.a. John Shore], in Thirteen Volumes 1807 vol. 13 London 399 426 Printed for John Stockdale, Piccadilly; and John Walker, Paternoster-Row

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kashani-Sabet Firoozeh Frontier Fictions: Shaping the Iranian Nation, 1804-1946 1999 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press

  • Kejariwal O. P Cannon Garland & Brine Kevin “William Jones: The Copernicus of History.” Objects of Enquiry: The Life, Contributions, and Influences of Sir William Jones, 1746-1794 1995 New York New York University Press 102 115

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khaleghi-Motlagh Djalal “Asadī Ṭūsī (d. 1072-73), Poet, Linguist and Copyist, from Ṭūs in Khorasan.” Encyclopædia Iranica (online) Originally published December 15, 1987. Last updated August 16, 2011. Accessed on May 28, 2014. http://www.iranica online.org/articles/asadi-tus

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khatun Raihana Aḥwāl-o-Ās̤ār-i Khān Ārzū, 1099 H./1687-1169 H./1755 1987 Delhi Indo-Persian Society

  • Kia Mana “Accounting for Difference: A Comparative Look at the Autobiographical Travel Narratives of Hazin Lāhiji ʿAbd al-Karīm Kashmiri.” Journal of Persianate Studies 2009 2 no. 2 210 36

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinra Rajeev “Fresh Words for a Fresh World: Tāza-Gūʾī and the Poetics of Newness in Early Modern Indo-Persian Poetry.” Sikh Formations: Religion, Culture, Theory 2007 3 no. 2 125 49 (Special issue, “Time and History in Sikh and South Asian Pasts,” edited by Anne Murphy.)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinra Rajeev Writing Self, Writing Empire: Chandar Bhan Brahman and the Cultural World of the Indo-Persian State Secretary 2015 Berkeley University of California Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinra Rajeev Murphy Anne “Make it Fresh: Time, Tradition, and Indo-Persian Literary Modernity.” Time, History, and the Religious Imaginary in South Asia 2011 London, New York Routledge 12 39

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinra Rajeev Bronner Yigal, Cox Whitney & McCrea Lawrence “This Noble Science: Indo-Persian Comparative Philology, c. 1000-1800 ce.” South Asian Texts in History: Critical Engagements with Sheldon Pollock 2011 Ann Arbor, MI Association for Asian Studies 359 385

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinra Rajeev “Handling Diversity with Absolute Civility: The Global Historical Legacy of Mughal Ṣulḥ-i Kull.” Medieval History Journal 2013 16 no. 2 251 95

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirmani Waris Dreams Forgotten: An Anthology of Indo-Persian Poetry 1986 Aligarh Academic Books

  • Lehmann Winfred P A Reader in Nineteenth Century Historical Indo-European Linguistics 1967 Bloomington, IA; London, UK Indiana University Press (Also available online at: http://www.utexas.edu/cola/centers/lrc/books/readT.htm.)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Losensky Paul E Welcoming Fighānī: Imitation and Poetic Individuality in the Safavid-Mughal Ghazal 1998 Costa Mesa, CA Mazda Publishers

  • McGregor Stuart Pollock Sheldon “The Progress of Hindi, Part 1: The Development of a Transregional Idiom.” Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia 2003 Berkeley University of California Press 912 57

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meri Josef W. & Bacharach Jere L. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia 2006 New York Routledge

  • Mirza Khan ibn Fakhr al-Din Muhammad Ansārī Nurul Hasan Tuḥfat al-Hind 1975 Tehran Bunyād-i Farhang-i Īrān

  • Mohiuddin M. “Sabk-i Hindi (The Indian Style of Persian Prose) with Special Reference to Inshāʾ.” Indo-Iranica 1960 13 no. 2 19 30

  • Mukhlis Anand Ram Shekhar Chander, Ghalichkani Hamidreza & Yousefdahi Houman Mirʾāt al-Iṣtilāḥ 2013 Dehli Dilli Kitab Ghar 2 vols.

  • Mukhlis Anand Ram Ahmad Tasneem Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Medieval India = Mirat-ul-Istilah 1993 Delhi Sundeep Prakashan

  • Munir Lahori Abu al-Barakat Ikram S. M. Kārnāma 1977 Islamabad Markaz-i Tahqīqāt-i Fārsī-yi Iran-o-Pakistan

  • Naim C. M. Zikr-i Mir: The Autobiography of the Eighteenth Century Mughal Poet, Mir Muhammad Taqi ʿMirʾ 1723-1810 1999 New Delhi Oxford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakhjawani Muhammad bin Hindushah ʿAbd al-ʿAli Ta⁠ʾati Ṣiḥāḥ al-Furs: Farhang-i Lug̲h̲āt-i Fārsī az Qarn-i Hashtum-i Ḥijrī 1962 Tehran Bungāh-i Tarjuma wa Nashr-i Kitāb

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakhjawani Muhammad bin Hindushah Ălizadă Ă. Ă. O. Dastūr al-Kātib fī Ta⁠ʾĭīn al-Marātib 1964-1976 Moscow Izd-vo “Nauka,” Glav. red. vostochnoĭ lit-ry 2 vols in 3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollock Sheldon “Sanskrit Literary Culture from the Inside Out.” Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia 2003 Berkeley University of California Press 39 130

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollock Sheldon “Towards a Political Philology: D D Kosambi and Sanskrit.” Economic & Political Weekly 2008 July 26 52 9

  • Pollock Sheldon “Future Philology? The Fate of a Soft Science in a Hard World.” Critical Inquiry 2009 35 no. 4 931 61

  • Raj Kapil Relocating Modern Science: Circulation and the Construction of Knowledge in South Asia and Europe, 1650-1900 2007 Basingstoke Palgrave MacMillan

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richards John F “Early Modern India and World History.” Journal of World History 1997 8 no. 2 197 209

  • Rieu Charles Catalogue of the Persian Manuscripts in the British Museum 1879-1883 London British Museum 3 vols.

  • Rizvi Saiyid Athar Abbas A History of Sufism in India: Volume One (Early Sufism and its History in India to ad 1600) 2003 New Delhi Munshiram Manoharlal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rizvi Saiyid Athar Abbas Religious and Intellectual History of the Muslims in Akbar’s Reign (with Special Reference to Abuʾl Fazl) (1556-1605) 1975 New Delhi Munshiram Manoharlal

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robins Robert H Cannon Garland & Brine Kevin “Jones as a General Linguist in the Eighteenth-Century Context.” Objects of Enquiry: The Life, Contributions, and Influences of Sir William Jones, 1746-1794 1995 New York New York University Press 83 91

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roy Olivier The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations 2000 New York New York University Press

  • Ruymbeke Christine van Science and Poetry in Medieval Persia: The Botany of Nizami’s Khamsa 2007 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Rypka Jan Jahn Karl “History of Persian Literature up to the Beginning of the 20th Century.” History of Iranian Literature 1968 Dordrecht D. Reidel 69 351 In Rypka et al.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saliba George Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance 2011 Cambridge, MA; London, UK The MIT Press

  • Schimmel Annemarie Anvari’s Divan: A Pocket Book for Akbar: A Dīvān of Auḥaduddin Anvari, Copied for the Mughal Emperor Jalaluddin Akbar (r. 1556-1605) at Lahore in a.h. 996/a.d. 1588 Now in the Fogg Art Museum of Harvard University 1983 New York Metropolitan Museum of Art

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwab Raymond Patterson-Black Gene & Reinking Victor The Oriental Renaissance: Europe’s Rediscovery of India and the East, 1680-1880 1984 New York Columbia University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sen Simonti Travels to Europe: Self and Other in Bengali Travel Narratives, 1870-1910 2005 New Delhi Orient Longman

  • Shahnawaz Khan Nawab Samsam al-Daula Abd-ur-Rahim Maulavi Ma⁠ʾās̤ir al-Umarā 1888-1891 Calcutta Asiatic Society of Bengal 3 vols.

  • Siyaqi Muhammad Dabir Farhanghā-yi Fārsī wa Farhang-gūnahʾhā 1989 Tihrān Isparak

  • Smith Matthew C. “Literary Courage: Language, Land, and the Nation in the Works of Malik al-Shuʿarā Bahār.” 2006 Harvard PhD diss.

    • Export Citation
  • Smith Matthew C. “Literary Connections: Bahār’s Sabkshenāsi and the Bāzgasht-e Adabi.” Journal of Persianate Studies 2009 2 no. 2 194 209

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starr S. Frederick Lost Enlightenment: Central Asia’s Golden Age from the Arab Conquest to Tamerlane 2013 Princeton, NJ; Oxford, UK Princeton University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Storey Charles A Persian Literature: A Bio-Bibliographical Survey (Volume iii, Part 1: A: Lexicography; B. Grammar; C. Prosody and Poetics) 1984 Leiden E. J. Brill, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Subrahmanyam Sanjay “Iranians Abroad: Intra-Asian Elite Migration and Early Modern State Formation.” Journal of Asian Studies 1992 51 no. 2 340 63

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sururi Muhammad Qasim Siyaqi Muhammad Dabir Farhang-i Majmaʿ al-Furs 1960-1963 Tehran ʿAlī Akbar ʿIlmī 3 vols.

  • Tavakoli-Targhi Mohamad Refashioning Iran: Orientalism, Occidentalism, and Historiography 2001 Basingstoke, Hampshire Palgrave

  • Tavakoli-Targhi Mohamad “The Homeless Texts of Persianate Modernity.” Cultural Dynamics 2001 13 no. 3 263 291

  • Tavakoli-Targhi Mohamad Kaiwar Vasant & Mazumdar Sucheta “Orientalism’s Genesis Amnesia.” Antinomies of Modernity: Essays on Race, Orient, Nation 2003 Durham Duke University Press 98 125

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thackston Wheeler M Nāṣer-E Khosraw’s Book of Travels = (Safarnāma) 1986 Albany, NY Bibliotheca Persica

  • Trautmann Thomas R Aryans and British India 1997 Berkeley University of California Press

  • Travers Robert Ideology and Empire in Eighteenth Century India: The British in Bengal 2007 New York Cambridge University Press

  • Vogel Claus Gonda Jan Indian Lexicography Vol. 5, Fasc. 4 of A History of Indian Literature 1979 Wiesbaden Otto Harrassowitz

  • Waldman Marilyn Robinson Toward a Theory of Historical Narrative: A Case Study in Perso-Islamicate Historiography 1980 Columbus, OH Ohio State University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wood Michael “1786: William Jones discovers Sanskrit’s relationship to Latin and Greek.” pbs video, 4:39, from online interactive timeline for Episode 6 (“Freedom: 1700 ce-2009 ce”) of Wood’s documentary miniseries The Story of India Originally aired on the bbc in 2007, and on pbs in 2009. http://www.pbs.org/thestoryofindia/timeline/6. (last accessed on May 29 2014)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yücesoy Hayrettin “Translation as Self-Consciousness: Ancient Sciences, Antediluvian Wisdom and the ʿAbbāsid Translation Movement.” Journal of World History 2009 20 no. 4 523 557

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziauddin M A Grammar of the Braj Bhakha. The Persian Text Critically Edited from Original mss., with an Introd., Translation and Notes, Together with the Contents of the Tuḥfatu-l-Hind 1935 Calcutta Visva-Bharati Book-Shop

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zilli Ishtiyaq Ahmad Alam Muzaffar, Delvoye Francoise “Nalini” & Gaborieau Marc “Development of Insha Literature to the End of Akbar’s Reign.” The Making of Indo-Persian Culture: Indian and French Studies 2000 New Delhi Manohar; Centre de Sciences Humaines 309 44

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 358 286 16
Full Text Views 156 124 13
PDF Downloads 33 31 2