Enabling Modernity: Innovation in Original Modulated Greek Typefaces, 1998–2007

in Philological Encounters
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

This article discusses the associations with tradition, modernity, innovation, and revivalism contained within, and enabled by, three seminal Greek typefaces for continuous reading in a modulated style, developed from 1998 onwards outside Greece. It starts with an analysis of the historical model of types cut by Firmin Didot; this style was later adopted by the Monotype Corporation for hot-metal composition, and survived across technologies well into the digital era. It provides a reference point for subsequent work, and informed new digital typefaces, starting with Adobe Systems’ Minion Pro (1998). The article discusses Adobe’s programme of developing large typographic families with Greek complements, which explicitly pushed the design envelope with each iteration. It examines the approaches taken for features such as the first pairing of monotonic and polytonic diacritics, the pioneering of functionally correct diacritics over small capitals, and their impact on wider practice. Parallel efforts that reinforced this trend by Microsoft, as well as notable independent work, are referenced in the context of active explorations of the relationship between Latin and Greek styles by non-Greek designers. The article concludes that the period between 1998–2007 has been revolutionary for Greek typefaces for continuous text.

Enabling Modernity: Innovation in Original Modulated Greek Typefaces, 1998–2007

in Philological Encounters

Sections

References

Adobe Systems Inc. Minion. 1990

Adobe Systems Inc. Garamond Premier Pro: a contemporary adaptation. 2005.

Adobe Systems Inc. Arno Pro. 2007.

Apple Computer Inc. Guide to Macintosh Software Localisation. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company1992.

AmariotouMaria. Writing and education. Flamma1935 [Greek text].

Aristotle. De Poetica. Foulis Press1745.

BarkerNicolas. Aldus Manutius and the Development of Greek Script and Type in the Fifteenth Century. Chiswick Book Shop1985.

BarkerNicolaset al. The Aldine Press: Catalogue of the Ahmanson-Murphy Collection of Books by or relating to the Press in the Library of the University of California Los Angeles: Incorporating works recorded elsewhere. University of California Press2001.

BigelowCharles and Kris Holmes. “The design of a Unicode font.” Electronic Publishingvol. 6no. 3 (September 1993): 289305.

BrodyNeville and Jon Wozencroft. FUSE. Taschen2012.

CarterMatthew. “Galliard: a modern revival of the types of Robert Granjon.” Visible Languagevol. XIXno. 1 (1985): 7797.

CerriGiovanni trans ed. Iliade Libro XVIII: Lo Scudo di Achille. Carocci Editore2010.

Haralambous Yannis. “From Unicode to Typography a Case Study: the Greek Script.” Paper presented at the 14th International Unicode Conference 1999.

HodgkinJohn. Specimens of Greek penmanship with directions for forming the characters. Darton & Harvey1835.

KalyvasStathis. Modern Greece. Oxford University Press2015.

KardariKonstantina ed. From Gutenberg to DTP. General Secretariat of Youth1992 [Greek text].

KarowPeter. Digital Formats for Typefaces. URW Verlag1987.

KeedyJeffrey. “Zombie Modernism.” Emigreno 34 (1995): 1731.

KinrossRobin. “The digital wave.” Eyeno. 7 (1992): 2639.

KnuthDonald E. METAFONT: A system for alphabet design: Report STAN-CS-79-762. Department of Computer Science, Stanford University1979.

Kosmopolis. Autumn ’99. Athens: Kosmopolis1999 [Greek text].

LaneJohn. “From the grecs du roi to the Homer Greek: two centuries of Greek printing types in the wake of Garamond.” In Greek letters: from tablets to pixels edited by Michael S. Macrakis109128. Oak Knoll Press1996.

Lekka Helena. “The design of Helvetica Greek for photocomposition.” Unpublished research seminar paper. University of Reading 2014.

LemonDavid. “An overview OpenType.” Type vol. 1no. 1 (1997).

LeonidasGerry. “A primer for Greek type design.” In Language culture type: international type design in the age of Unicode edited by John D. Berry7690. ATypI/Graphis2002.

LeonidasGerry. “A reappraisal of Baskerville’s Greek types.” In John Baskerville: art industry and culture in the Enlightenment edited by Caroline Archer and Malcolm Dick. The University of Liverpool Press2017.

Leonidas Gerry. “On systems and quality in typeface design.” In 5th Meeting of Typography—Book of Proceedings edited by Ana Catarina Silva and Marta Madureira. IPCA 2015.

Leonidas Gerry. “On systems and quality in typeface design.” In 5th Meeting of Typography—Book of Proceedings edited by Ana Catarina Silva and Marta Madureira. IPCA 2015.

Leonidas Gerry. “Polytonic Greek.” Lecture presented at the ATypI Vancouver conference. September 2003.

Leonidas Gerry. Unpublished correspondence with David Parsons. February 11 2005.

Leonidas Gerry. Unpublished correspondence with Robert Slimbach. May 21 1998.

LiakosAntonis. “Hellenism and the Making of Modern Greece: Time, Language, Space.” In Hellenisms. Culture Identity and ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity edited by Katerina Zacharia201236. Ashgate2008.

LiakosAntonis. “The Construction of National Time. The Making of the Modern Greek Historical Imagination.” In Political Uses of the Past The Recent Mediterranean Experience edited by Jacques Revel and Giovanni Levi2742. Frank Cass2002.

LiddellHenry George and Robert Scott eds. Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford University Press1845.

MastoridisKlimis. Casting the Greek newspaper: a study of the morphology of the ephemeris from its origins until the introduction of mechanical setting. ELIA1999.

MontanariFranco. The Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek. Edited by Madeleine Goh and Chad Schroeder. Brill2015.

N.a.The New Hellenic.” The Fleuronno 6 (1928): 231.

Parachute Fonts Parachute. Parachute n.d.

PattisonMark. The Estiennes: a biographical essay by Mark Pattison illustrated with original leaves from books printed by the three greatest members of that distinguished family. Grabhorn Press1949.

SakellaridisYannis. Graphic Arts. Iamvos1972 [Greek text].

SchreiberFred. The Estiennes: An Annotated catalogue of 300 Outstanding Books from Their 16th & 17th Century Publishing Houses. The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill1982.

SIL International. “Gentium: a typeface for the nations.” Accessed September 242016http://software.sil.org/gentium/.

TriantafyllidisManolis. Modern Greek Grammar. Foundation for Hellenic Studies. 1991 [Greek text].

TwymanMichael. “The bold idea: the use of bold-looking types in the nineteenth century.” Journal of the Printing Historical Societyno 22 (1993): 107143.

UngerGerard. “The design of a typeface.” Visible Languagevol. XIIIno. 2 (1979): 134149.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    The three Adobe typefaces discussed in this paper: Minion Pro (2000), Garamond Prremier Pro (2005) and Arno Pro (2007).
  • View in gallery
    A detail from Henri Estienne’s Oratorvm Vetervm Orationes, 1575, which demonstrates the formal complexity of Greek when typeset for a scholarly text.
  • View in gallery
    A plate from the Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des metiers, ed. by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d’Alembert (1751 onwards) showing three of the six cases required to typeset Greek with the full range of ligatures and abbreviations of the formal style represented in fig. 2. Author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    Γεώργιος Κουτούφας Αθηναίος, Ιστορία Κωνσταντίνου Κανάριου Ψαριανού: πυρπολιστού. Livorno, 1840. An edition of a historical topic printed outside Greece for importation, in a typically simple typographic structure. Author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    Detail from LinoType Collection, 1988, showing one of the key Greek typefaces for proprietary typesetting systems. Of note is the inclusion of some alternate letters, which were dropped in PostScript Type 1 versions. Author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    A page from a Greek digital foundry aimed at the local market (Kosmopolis, 1999) showing typefaces developed with significant loan elements from original Latin typefaces. Author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    Details from studies on the written form of the Greek script; top: from Hodgkin’s Specimens of Greek penmanship, based on the work of Porson and Young; below: a table from Amariotou’s Writing and education, comparing formal features of the Greek, Latin, and “German” lowercase characters (the German includes ß and alternate forms of writing). Both author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    Detail from proofs during the design process of Minion Pro, 1998, which show the substitution of serif-like elements with integrated instrokes. Author’s collection.
  • View in gallery
    Detail from Liddell & Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon, 1845, which exemplifies complex typographic settings with uncoordinated typefaces. Author’s collection. Below, detail from a sample page of the Ancient Greek-English Lexicon, Forthcoming 2019, which uses several styles of Arno Pro with modified diacritics to ensure clarity at small text sizes. Available at: https://www.classics.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/glp/lambda30.
  • View in gallery
    Demonstrating modulation across the Greek omicron, in Minion Pro, Garamond Premier Pro, and Arno Pro respectively. The Latin counterparts are in outline. Whereas Minion Pro remains close to the Latin ductus, GPP follows a traditional angle, and Arno Pro follows a hybrid construction, with softer modulation but heavily modified proportions. The text examples demonstrate the impact of the change in Minion Pro, GPP, And Arno Pro: the top line contains the Greek omicron, while the bottom line substitutes it with the Latin o.
  • View in gallery
    A marked up photocopy of a page of early printing by Lorenzo de Alopa with Greek diacritics over small capital letters that served as a reference for Arno Pro’s expanded Greek character set and case conversion features. Author’s collection. Below, a passage in polytonic in lower-case and accented small caps, in imitation of de Alopa’s setting.
  • View in gallery
    Recent typefaces that explore modulation and stroke terminations: Garamond Premier Pro, Brill, and Arno Pro in the top three rows demonstrate a closer connection to written forms; Literata (Type-Together, 2015), Skolar PE (Rosetta Type, 2011) and Colvert (Typographies, 2012) introduce a more constructed texture, while maintaining a variation in the counter shapes and richness of entry- and exit strokes. Below, an example of GPP in use in an edition of the Iliad by Carocci Editore, Italy.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 52 52 27
Full Text Views 30 30 21
PDF Downloads 12 12 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0