Aristotle’s Model of Animal Motion

In: Phronesis

Abstract

In this paper we argue that Aristotle operates with a particular theoretical model in his explanation of animal locomotion, what we call the ‘centralized incoming and outgoing motions’ (CIOM) model. We show how the model accommodates more complex cases of animal motion and how it allows Aristotle to preserve the intuition that animals are self-movers, without jeopardizing his arguments for the eternity of motion and the necessary existence of one eternal unmoved mover in Physics VIII. The CIOM model helps to elucidate Aristotle’s two central yet problematic claims, namely that the soul is the efficient cause of animal motion and that it is the internal supporting-point necessary for animal motion. Moreover, the CIOM model helps us to explain the difference between voluntary, involuntary and non-voluntary motions, and to square Aristotle’s cardiocentrism with his hylomorphism, but also, more generally, it provides an interesting way of thinking about the place of intentionality in the causal structure of the world.

  • AchtenbergD. Cognition of Value in Aristotle’s Ethics 2002 Albany

  • BerrymanS. ‘Aristotle on Pneuma and Animal Self-Motion’, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 2002 23 85 97

  • BlockI. ‘The Order of Aristotle’s Psychological Writings’ American Journal of Philology 1961 82 50 77

  • BosA. P. The Soul and its Instrumental Body: A Reinterpretation of Aristotle’s Philosophy of Living Nature 2003 Leiden / Boston

  • CastonV. SallesR. ‘The Spirit and the Letter: Aristotle on Perception’ Metaphysics Soul and Ethics: Themes from the Work of Richard Sorabji 2004 Oxford 245 320

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CastonV. ‘Why Aristotle Needs Imagination’ Phronesis 1999 41 20 55

  • CharlesD. Aristotle’s Theory of Action 1984 London

  • CharlesD. HirvonenV.HolopainenT. L.TuominenM. ‘Aristotle’s Desire’ Mind and Modality: Studies in the History of Philosophy in Honour of Simo Knuuttila 2006 Leiden / Boston 19 40

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CorciliusK. Streben und Bewegen: Aristoteles’ Theorie der animalischen Ortsbewegung 2008 Berlin / New York

  • CorciliusK. MillerJ. ‘Aristotle’s Definition of Non-Rational Pleasure and Pain and Desire’ Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. A Critical Guide 2011 Cambridge 117 143

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CorciliusK.GregoricP. ‘Separability vs. Difference: Parts and Capacities of the Soul in Aristotle’ Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 2010 39 81 119

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FreelandC. ‘Aristotle on Perception, Appetition, and Self-Motion’ Gill and Lennox 1994 1994 35 63

  • FurleyD. LloydG. E. R.OwenG. E. L. ‘Self-Movers’ Aristotle on the Mind and on the Senses 1978 Cambridge 165- 179 [Reprinted in Gill and Lennox 1994 3-14.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GillM. L. ‘Aristotle on Self-Motion’ 1994 15 34 Gill and Lennox 1994

  • GillM. L.LennoxJ. G. Self-Motion: From Aristotle to Newton 1994 Princeton

  • GregoricP. Aristotle on the Common Sense 2007 Oxford

  • GregoricP.KuharM. ‘Aristotle’s Physiology of Animal Motion: On Neura and Muscles’. forthcoming

  • HardieW. F. R. ‘Aristotle’s Treatment of the Relation Between the Soul and the Body’ The Philosophical Quarterly 1964 14 53 72

  • HicksR. D. Aristotle: De Anima 1907 Cambridge

  • KolleschJ. Aristotele: Über die Bewegung der Lebewesen. Über die Fortbewegung der Lebewesen 1985 Berlin

  • LabarrièreJ. L. ‘Imagination humaine et imagination animale chez Aristote’ Phronesis 1984 29 17 49

  • LaksA.RashedM. Aristote et le mouvement des animaux: Dix études sur le de Motu Animalium 2004 Villeneuve d’Ascq

  • LorenzH. The Brute Within: Appetitive Desire in Plato and Aristotle 2006 Oxford

  • LorenzH. ‘The Assimilation of Sense to Sense-Object in Aristotle’, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 2007 33 179 229

  • LouisP. Aristote: Marche des animaux Mouvement des animaux 1973 Paris

  • MansionA. ‘Préface’ 1948 Nuyens 1948

  • MeyerS. S. ‘Self-Movement and External Causation’ 1994 65 80 Gill and Lennox 1994

    • Export Citation
  • MorelP.-M. ‘Volontaire, involontaire et non-volontaire dans le chapitre 11 du DMA d’Aristote’ 2004 167 183 Laks and Rashed 2004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorelP.-M. De la matière á la action: Aristote et le probleme du vivant 2007 Paris

  • MorisonB. ‘Self-Motion in Physics VIII’ 2004 67 79 Laks and Rashed 2004

  • NussbaumM. C. Aristotle’s De Motu Animalium 1978 Princeton

  • NussbaumM. C.RortyA. O. Essays on Aristotle’s De Anima 1992 Oxford

  • NuyensF. L’Évolution de la Psychologie d’Aristote 1948 Louvain

  • PreusA. Aristotle and Michael of Ephesus: On the Movement and Progression of Animals 1981 Hildesheim / New York

  • RichardsonH. S. ‘Desire and the Good in De Anima’ 1992 381 399 Nussbaum and Rorty 1992

  • RickenF. Der Lustbegriff in der Nikomachischen Ethik des Aristoteles Hypomnemata 1975 46 Göttingen

  • RossW. D. Aristotle: Physics 1936 Oxford

  • RossW. D. ‘The Development of Aristotle’s Thought’ Proceedings of the British Academy 1957 43 63 78 [Reprinted in J. Barnes M. Schofield and R. Sorabji (eds.)Articles on Aristotle. Vol. 1: Science (London 1975) 1-13.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RossW. D. Aristotle: De Anima 1961 Oxford

  • SchofieldM. LloydG. E. R.OwenG. E. L. ‘Aristotle on the Imagination’ Aristotle on Mind and the Senses 1978 Cambridge 99 130 [Reprinted in Nussbaum and Rorty 1992 249-77.]

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchofieldM. PakalukM.PearsonG. ‘Phantasia in De Motu Animalium Moral Psychology and Human Action in Aristotle 2011 Oxford 119 134

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SorabjiR. Animal Minds and Human Morals 1993 London

  • TracyT. AntonJ.PreusA. ‘Heart and Soul in Aristotle’ Essays in Ancient Greek Philosophy 1983 2 Albany 321 339

  • TuozzoT. M. ‘Conceptualized and Unconceptualized Desire in Aristotle’ Journal of the History of Philosophy 1994 32 525 549

  • WaterlowS. Nature Change and Agency in Aristotle’s Physics 1982 Oxford

  • WedinM. Mind and Imagination in Aristotle 1988 New Haven / London

  • WhitingJ. ‘Locomotive Soul: The Parts of Soul in Aristotle’s Scientific Works’ Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 2002 22 141 200

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 1)

    Gill and Lennox 1994p. xv.

  • 21)

    So Berryman 200293-7.

  • 39)

    In this we differ from Furley (1978) who thinks that there must be a qualitative difference between the account of the motions of simpler animals on the one hand and humans on the other. This is justly criticized by Freeland (1994 38-9).

  • 45)

    Nuyens 194855247; Mansion 1948 pp. ix-x; Ross 1957 65-7; Louis 1973 pp. xvii-xviii.

  • 51)

    Furley 1978175.

  • 52)

    Nussbaum 1978221-69endorsed by Furley 1978 179 n. 13.

  • 54)

    A point made also by Waterlow 1982216.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 260 236 15
Full Text Views 231 218 2
PDF Downloads 43 41 4