1 1Professor of Law, President, International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University College of Law; President, International Institute for Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences; President, International Association of Penal Law.
I Case Concerning the Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Congo v. Belg.), 2002 I.C.J. 121 (Feb. 14), reprinted in 41 I.L.M. 536 (2002). 2 See M. Cherif Bassiouni, Universal Jurisdiction for International Crimes: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Practice, 42 VA. J. INT'L L. 81 (2001 ) [hereinafter Bassiouni, Universal Jurisdiction]. ]. 3 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, Apr. 18, 1961, 23 U.S.T. 3227, 500 U.N.T.S. 95 [here- inafter Vienna Diplomatic Convention]. See also Optional Protocol to the Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 18 April 1961 concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes, 23 U.S.T. 3374, 500 U.N.T.S. 241.
4 Vienna Diplomatic Convention, supra note 3, art. 41(2). 5 Arrest Warrant of ll April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121. 1. 6 S.S. Lotus (Fr. v. Turk.), 1927 P.C.I.J (ser. A) No. 10, at 20 (Sept. 7). 7 See M. CHERIF BASSIOUNI, INTERNATIONAL EXTRADITION M U.S. LAW AND PRACTICE ch. 6 (4th rev. ed., 2002); Christopher Blakesley, Extraterritorial Jurisdiction, in 2 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW 43 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 2d rev. ed. 1999).
8 Charter of the International Military Tribunal, Aug. 8, 1945, 82 U.N.T.S. 284, 59 Stat. 1546 [here- inafter Nuremberg Charter], annexed to Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment of the Major War Criminals of the European Axis, Aug. 8, 1945, 82 U.N.T.S. 279, 59 Stat. 1544. 9 Charter of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, Jan. 19, 1946, T.LA.S. No. 1589 at 3, amended Apr. 26, 1946, art. 6., T.LA.S. No. 1589 at 11 [hereinafter IMTFE Amended Charter]. 10 The International Military Tribunal at N2LYeriih2rg, in TRIAL OF THE MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS BEFORE THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL (1949) (the "Blue Series"); TRIALS OF WAR CRIMINALS BEFORE THE NUREMBERG MILITARY TRIBUNALS UNDER CONTROL COUNCIL No. 10 (1949) ("Green Series"). THE TOKYO WAR CRIMES TRIAL : THE COMPREHENSIVE INDEX AND GUIDE TO THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY TRIBUNAL FOR THE FAR EAST IN FIVE VOLUMES (R. John Pritchard & Sonia Magbanua Zaide eds., 1981). 11 Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, art. 7(2), S.C. Res. 808, U.N. SCOR, 48th Sess., 3217th mtg., U.N. Doc. S/RES/808 (1993), annexed to Report of the Secretary-General Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of U.N. Security Council Resolution 808 (1993), U.N. Doc. S/2-5704 & Add. 1 (1993) [hereinafter ICTY Statute]. See M. CHERIF BASSIOUNI & PETER MANIKAS, THE LAW OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA (1996). 12 Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, art. 6(2), S.C. Res. 955, U.N. SCOR, 49th Sess., 3453d mtg., Annex, U.N. Doc. S/RES/955 (1994) [hereinafter ICTR Statute]. See VIRGINIA MORRIS & MICHAEL P. SCHARF, THE INTENATIONAL CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL FOR RWANDA (2 vols. 1998). 13 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Jul. 17, 1998, art. 27, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.183/9 [hereinafter ICC Statute], reprinted in 37 I.L.M. 999 (1998).
Arrest Warrant of 1 April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121, 142. Id. at 143.
17 Id. at 147. 18 Id. at 149.
Id. at I50-51.
zo See ICTY Statute, supra note 11. 1 . 21 See ICTR Statute, supra note 12. zz See ICC Statte, supra note 13. z3 Id. art. 13(b). 24 Act of 16 June 1993 on the Punishment of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and their Additional Protocols I and II of 18 June 1977, art. 7, MONITEUR BELGE, Aug. 5, 1993 (Belgium) [hereinafter Belgian 1993 Universal Jurisdiction Law]. z5 See, e.g., Princeton Principles on Universal Jurisdiction (Princeton University Program in Law and Public Affairs, 2001), reprinted in Bassiouni, Universal Jurisdiction, supra note 2, at 157.
z6 See Vienna Diplomatic Convention, supra note 3. 27 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, Apr. 24, 1963, 21 U.S.T. 77, 596 U.N.T.S. 261 [here- inafter Vienna Consular Convention]. z8 See Vienna Diplomatic Convention, supra note 3. 29 As stated in the ICJ's Press Release 2002/04bis, available at http://www.icj-cij.org/icjwww/ipress- com/ipress2002/ipresscom2002-04bis_cobe_20020214.htm [hereinafter ICJ Press Release].
30 Id. 31 Id. 32 Id. 33 Arrest Warrant of 1 April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121, 138.
34 See Bassiouni, Universal Jurisdiction, supra note 2, at 84. Such immunity is not available under Article 27 of the ICC Statute; see supra note 13. However, the ICC statute is part of a treaty, and states may thereby alter customary international law.
3s Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121, 145. 36 ICJ Press Release, supra note 29.
� S.S. Lotus, supra note 6, at 28.
3$ Regina v. Bartle & Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis and Others, Ex Parte Pinochet Ugarte (Amnesty International et al. intervening) (No. 3), 2 All E.R. 97 (H.L. 1999). 39 Al-Adsani v. United Kingdom, Eur. Ct. H.R., App. No. 35763/97 (Nov. 21, 2001), available at .
40 See ICJ Press Release, supra note 29. 41 John 8: 3-7.
Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000, 2002 LC.J. 121, 140 para. 52. 43 Id. para. 53. Unfortunately, the ICJ decision here may have the unintended consequence of encour- aging states to invent various cabinet positions, functional or fictitious, in order to shelter alleged human rights violators from being prosecuted in other states. Id. at 146 para. 70. 45 Belgian 1993 Universal Jurisdiction Law, supra note 24. 46 See M. Cherif Bassiouni, The Need for International Accountability, in 3 INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAw 11 (M. Cherif Bassiouni ed., 2d rev. ed. 1999) [hereinafter Bassiouni, The Need for Accountabilitv]. 4� But see the International Law Commission's Draft Code of Crimes Against the Peace and Security of Mankind ( 1996), 51 UN GAOR Supp. (No. 10) at 14, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/L.532, corr.l, corr.3 (1996) (commentary to article 7 noting that "[t]he absence of any procedural immunity ... is an essential corollary of the absence of any substantive immunity or defence."). 48 Arrest Warrant oaf 11 April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121, 143 paras. 60-61. 49 j�j. at 142, para. 58. See also M. CHERIF BASSIOUNI, THE STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT: A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY (1998); M. Cherif Bassiouni, International Criminal Court Ratification and National Implementing Legislation, 71 REV. INT'LDE DROIT PENAL (2000).
50 Arrest Warrant of ll April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121, 142 para. 61. 5� In other words, if judgments only apply to the parties and to the facts of a given case, they can have no precedential effect. However, the reference to prior ICJ judgments creates de facto jurispruden- tial case law. 52 This is plainly seen in the establishment of the ICTY, the ICTR and the ICC. 53 See authorities cited supra note 7.
sa Actio popularis means to act on behalf of the community; in this case, the community would be the international community. See, e.g., MARC HENZELIN, LE PRINCIPE DE L!UNIVERSALITT EN DROIT PENAL INTERNATIONAL: DROIT ET OBLIGATfON POUR LES ETATS DE POURSUIVRE ET JUGER SELON LE PRINCIPE DE L'UNIvERSALITÉ (2000). ss See Bassiouni, Universal Jurisdiction, supra note 2. 56 See Belgian 1993 Universal Jurisdiction Law, supra note 24. 57 Surely the Court was mindful that the investigating judge of Brussels who issued the arrest warrant in this case was also considering a criminal complaint against Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon. However, the Court must also have considered other potentialities of charges being brought in some countries against former heads of state and governments, former ministers of defense and foreign officials, and retired generals. One such famous name is that of former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. See CHRISTOPHER HITCHENS, THE TRIAL OF HENRY KISSINGER (2001). �.
58 Arrest Warrant of II April 2000, 2002 I.C.J. 121 (Joint Separate Opinion of Judges Higgins, Kooijmans and Buergenthal). This very issue is probably what prompted Judges Higgins, Kooijmans and Buergenthal to formulate their separate opinion. Their opinion notes an evolving principle of international law towards the exercise of universal jurisdiction for crimes against humanity. 59 See Bassiouni, The Need forAccountability, supra note 46.