1 1Professor of Law, Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania. B.B.A., University of Michigan, 1965; J.D., Detroit College of Law, 1968; LL.M. (Public International and Comparative Law). George Washington University, 1969.
I See Heller & Nusseibeh, No Trumpets, No Drum: A Two-State Settlement of the lsraeli-Pales- tinian Conflict ( 1991 ); al-Haj, Katz & Shye, Arab and Jewish Attitudes toward a Palestinian State, 37 J. Conflict Resolution 619 (1993); Bizman & Hoffman, Expectation, Emotion.s, and Preferred Responses Regarding the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 37 J. Conflict Resolution 139 (1993); Boyle, The Creation of the State of Palestine, I Eur. J. In!,1 L. 301 (1990)� Crawford, The Creation of the State of Palestine: Too Much too Soon?, I Eur. J. In!,1 L. 307 ( 1990); Friedlander, The PLO and the Rule of Law: A Reply to D,: Anis Kassim, 10 Den. J. Int' L. & Pol'y 221 (198 1); ); Gottlieb, Israel and the Palestinians, 68 For. Aff. 109 (1989); Kassim, The Palestine Liberation Organization Claim to Status: A Juridical Analysts under International Law, 9 Den. J. Int'i L. & Pol'y I (I 980)� Quigley, Palestine's Declaration of Independence: Self-Determination and the Right of the Palestinians to Statehood, 7 B.U. Int'I L.J. I (1989); Salmon, La Declaration de I'etat de la Palestine, 33 Annuaire Française de Droit International 37 (1988). For an interesting comment on whether contending communities should each attempt to become a state, see Gottlieb, Nations without States, 73 For. Aff. No. 3, at 100 (May/June 1994). 2 For summaries of these conflicts, with attention to the international legal arguments regarding them, see Garner, One Land, Two People.s: The Conflict over- Palestine ( 1991 Kimmerling, Pales- tinians: The Making of a People ( 1992); Mallison & Mallison, The Palestine Problem in Inter- national Law and World Order (1986); Quigley, Pnlesti»e and Israel,: A Challenge to Justice ( 1990); Charters. Palestine: Tlte Politics of Partition, 43 U.N. Brunsw. L.J. 321 (1994); Dinstein, The Arab-Israeli Conflict from the Perspective of International Lat� 43 U.N. Brunsw. L.J. 301 I ( 1994). See also Rubin, Revolution until Victory? The Politics and History of the PLO (1994). 3 See Kally, Water and Peace: Water Resources and the Arab-lsraeli Peace Process xvi (1993) (referring to an ancient war over the Dan River and the migration of peoples to the Nile VaIley). 4 See, e.g., Bannerman,Arabsand Israelis: Slow Walk toward Peace. 72 For. Aff. No. I, at 142 (1992); ); Begin, The Likud Visionfor Israel at Peace, 70 For. Aff. No. 4, at 21 (1992)� Rosenberg, A Shadow Is Cast over Israelis Army: Hearings into the Hebron Mosque Massacre Have Evposed Mistakes, Biases and Negligence, Phil. Inquirer, April 10, 1994, at D2. 5 Even commentators in China have noted as much. See Assistance in Water Re.source Management is Offered, Xinhua News Agency, as translated in Foreign Broadcast Inf. Service-China-92-181, Sept. 17, 1992, at 14.
6 /sraeli-Palestinian Liberation Organization Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Govern- ment Arrangements, signed in Washington, DC, Sept. 13, 1993, reprinted in 32 Int'l Legal Mat'ls 1525 ( 1993), and in 4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 572 ( 1993) [hereinafter Declaration of Principles]. Text is also reproduced infra at 232. For brief general examinations of the provisions of the Declaration in the context of international law, see Benvenisti, The Israeli-Palestinian Declaration of Principles: A FrameworkforFuture Settlement, 4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 543 ( 1993); Cassese, The Israel-PLO Agreement and Self Determination, 4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 564 (1993); Shehadeh, Can the Declaration of Principles Bring About a "Just and Lasting Peace" ?, 4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 555 (1993). 7 32 Int'l Legal Mat'Is at 1537-38. 8 Israeli-Palestine Liberation Organization Agreement on the Gaze Strip and the Jericho Area, signed at Cairo, May 4, 1994, reprinted in 33 Int'l Legal Mat'Is 622 ( 1994). Text is also reproduced infra at 243.
9 The reference is to the Israeli Civil Administration that relinquished authority to the Palestinian Authority over the indicated portions of the Occupied Territories.
10 33 Int'l Legal Mat'ls at 665, 669, 677-78. 11 1 Annex II. art. II, T 35, id. at 679-80. 12 Annex IV, id. at 696-720. 13 Haberman, Israel and Jordan Agree They Want Formal Treaty, N.Y. Times, Nov. 2, 1992, at A3. 14 Israel-Jordan Common Agenda for the Bilateral Peace Negotiations, initialed at Washington, DC, Sept. 14, 1993, reprinted at 32 Int'l Legal Mat'ls 1522 ( 1993) [hereinafter Common Agendn].
15 /srael-Jordan Declaration Terminating the State of Belligerency, signed at Washington, DC, July 25, 1994, reprinted in N.Y. Times, July 26, 1994, at A8 [hereinafter "Declaration Terminating Belligerency"]. 16 Id. at I [B]. 17 Id. at 4M [E], [F].
18 /srael-Jordan Treaty of Peace, signed at Araba/Arava, Oct. 26, 1994, reprinted in N.Y. Times, Oct. 27, 1994, at A 12 [hereinafter Peace Treaty]. The published version did not include Annex II referred to in Article 6; published reports indicate that Israel agreed to make substantial quantities of water available to Jordan out of the Jordan-Yarrnuk hyrdologic system. See Cowell, Israel and Jordan Sign Draft of Wide-Ranging Peace Treaty: Will Share Water, N.Y. Times, Oct. l8, 1994, at Al.
19 See Dellapenna, The Waters of the Jordan Valley,: The Potential and Limits of Law, 5 Palestine YB. Int'l L. 15-47 ( 1990) [hereinafter Jordan Unlley]. See genernlly Kliot, Water Resources and Conflict in the Middle East 173 ( 1994). 20 See Dellapenna, Treaties as Instruments for Managing Internationally-Shared Water Resources: Restricted Sovereignty vs. Community of Property. 26 Case-W. Res. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 27 (1994) [hereinafter Treaties]. 21 See, e.g., Saliba, The Jordnn River Dispute ( 1968); Schmida, Keys to Controllsrnel's Pursuit of Arnb Water Resource ( 1982); U.S. Army Corps of Eng., Water in the Snnd: A Survey of Middle Enst Water Issues (Draft 1991 Anderson, White Oil, Geographical Mag., Feb. 1991, at 10; Cooley, Belrind tlre News: The Hydranlic Imperative, 205 Middle East Int'1 10 (July 22, 1983) : Cooley, The War over Water, 54 For. Aff. 3 (1984); Heller, Drnining the Rivers Dy, Geographical Mag., July 1990, at 32; Starr, Water Warns, 82 For. Aff. 17 (1991); Stauffer, The Lune of the Litarti, Middle East Int'l (July 30, 1982); Symposium, WaterPolitics, The Middle East, Spec. Rep. No. 76 at47-54 ( 1981); Wolf & Ross, The Impact of Scorre Water Resource rm the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 32 Nat. Resources J. 919 ( 1992).
22 For example, the United States and Canada, notwithstanding the highly successful operations of the International Joint Commission on Boundary Waters, have engaged in apparently endless disputes over the Great Lakes and other shared waters. See generally Symposium, U.S.-Canadian Transboundary Resource /ssues, 26 Nat. Resources J. 201 ( 1986); Utton, Canadian International Waters, in 5 Waters and Water Rights ch. 50 (Beck ed. 1991). ). 23 The struggle between various states of the United States has gone on in both political and legal fora for decades, often involving the interests of foreign nations, of the federal government, of tribes of American Indians, and of other public and private groups or entities. See generally Grant, lnterstate Water Allocation, in 4 Waters and Water Rights, supra, chs. 43-48; Tarlock, The Law of Equitable Apportionment Revisited, Updated, and Restated, 56 Colo. L. Rev. 381 (1985). 24 The protection of dams is now codified in Protocol 1 to the Geneva Conventions on the Laws of War. Just how important the protection of dams is considered to be is indicated by the inclusion of the protection of dams (and dikes) in the section that also prohibits attacks on nuclear facilities; attacks on all are prohibited if it would cause severe losses for the civilian population. Attacks on dams and dikes are specifically prohibited unless the dam is used "other than for its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support." Protocol lAdditional to the Geneva Convention of l2 Aug. 1949 Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, opened for signature, Dec. 12, 1977, art. 56, 6 U.S.T. 3516, T.I.A.S. No. 3364, 1125 U.N.T.S. 3, 16 Int'l Leg. Mat'ls 1391. The Draft Articles prepared by the International Law Commission on the Law of Non-Navigational Use of International Watercourses also attempts to codify the practice of placing water sources and facilities off-limits to combat. Int'l L. Comm'n, Draft Articles on the Law of Non-Navigational Use of International Watercourses, art. 29, U.N. GAOR, 43d Sess., at 7, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/L.463/Add.4, ch. III (1991), reprinted in 3 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. I (1992) [hereinafterDraftArticles]. 25 For a good, brief summary of the general hostility between India and Pakistan, see de Riencourt, India and Pakistan in the Shadow ofAfghanistan, 61 For. Aff. 416 (1982). 26 See generally concannon, Note, The Indus Waters Treaty: Three Decades of Success, Yet, Will It Endure'?, 1 Geo. Int's Envtl. L. Rev. 55 (1989). See also Teclaff, The River Basin in History and Law 163-65, 18384 (1967); Baxter, The Indus Basin, in The Law of International Drainage Basins 443 (Garretson, Haton & Olmstead eds. 1967). 27 See generally Garfinkle, Israel and Jordan in the Shadow of War 34-40, 79-83, 116, 162-73 ( 1992); Israel and Arab Water: An International Symposium (Farid & Sarriyeh eds. 1985); Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra.
28 See Gerard. Ecological Disaster Looms in Croatia, Toronto Star, Jan. 31, 1993, at B4: Pomfret. In Sarajevo, Doctors Are Powerless; Electrical Shutoff Cripples Hospital; Part of City Gets Water Again, Wash. Post, July 15, 1993, at A2-l; Randal, Croats Struggle to Stop Dam Collapse: Thousand Are Imperiled, Serbs Are Accused of Detonating Charges, Wash. Post., Jan. 30, 1993, at A 1; Williams, Croats Rush to Drain Ma.ssive Lake behind Dam, L.A. Times, Jan. 30, 1993 (home ed.), at A4. 29 Apart from the Gulf War, the primary examples of military targeting of water facilities are the bombing of dams in Germany during World War II and in North Korea during the Korean War, both non-reci- procal risk situations. See Brickhill, Dam Busters ( 1951 ) (also the name of the memorable motion picture based on the book); Futrell, The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950-1953, at 627-28, 637 (1961). Despite the apparently indiscriminate American bombing during the Vietnam War, the United States did not attack dams and dikes despite the obvious vulnerability of North Vietnam's irrigated agricultural system in the Red River delta. See Goldman, supra, at 389. Iraq diverted the course of rivers at times during its war with Iran in the 1980s, but this did not deprive civilians of their water. Rather, it served to create "water barriers" in an area where water was already plentiful, in an attempt to stop the advancing Iranian military. Ross, supra, at 518. See genera!ly Okordudu-Fubara, Oil in the Persian War: Legal Appraisal of an Environmental Warfare, 23 St. Mary's L.J. 123 (1991). ). 30 See Water in the Middle East: Conflict or Cooperation? (Naff & Matson eds. 1984), at 17-22: Saliba, supra, at 32--15; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 19-22: Clawson, Mideast Economies after the Israel-PLO Hnndshake, 48 J. Int'l Aff. 141. 154-57 (1994) ; Cowell, Hurdle to Peace: Pnrting the Mideast's Waters, N.Y. Times, Oct. 10, 1993, at A1; Fischer, Building Palestinian Prosperiht 93 For. Pol'y 60 (1993) ; Haberman, Water and Concessions Can Six, Israeli Study Says: Access to Current Supplies Must Be Assured and Arab Help Is Essential, N.Y. Times, Oct. 10, 1993, at A6. 31 See Garfinkle, supra, at 34-40, 79-83, 116, 162-73; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra; Wolf, Water for Peace in the Jordan River Watershed, 33 Nat. Resources J. 797 ( 1993). 32 Hart, The Concept of Law 77-96 (1961); Water in the Middle East, saepra, at 157-60: Janis, An Introduction to International! Law 45-46 (1988); Dinstein, International Law as a Primitive Regal System, 19 Int'i L. & Politics I (1986). 33 The question was apparently first asked in the nineteenth century by John Austin. Austin, The Province ofJurisprudence Determined 122-25 (Hart ed. 1955).
34 See generally, MacLean. Does Anyone Still Ask the Question: "ls International Law Regally Law? ". 1991 Juridical Rev. 230. 35 See Note, Laws Thnt Are Made to Be Broken: Adjusting forAnticipated Noncompliance, 75 Mich. L. Rev. 687 ( 1977). 36 Austin, supra, at 133, 201. This notion of law can be traced back at least as far as Hobbes in the seventeenth century. See Hobbes, Leviathan (1651). ). 37 Goodhart, Law and the Mornf Law 17 ( 1953). See afso Hart, supra, at 20-25. 38 See Hart, supra, at 77-96. 39 See generally Fitzmaurice, The Foundations of the Authority of International Law. 19Mod.L.Rev. 1(1956).
40 Barkun, Law without Sanctions ( 1968): Li, Law without Lawyers ( 1978); Murphy, Some Reflections upon Theories Concerning the Nature of Law. 70 Colum. L. Rev. 447 (1970). 41 Statute of the International Court ofJustice, art. 38(l)(a), 59 Stat. 1055, T.S. 993 (1945) [hereinafter ICJ Statute]. 42 Id., art. 38(1 )(b), (c). 43 Declaration of Principles, supra, Annex III, § 1. 44 Common Agenda, supra, § 3(a). 45 Declaration Terminating Belligerency, supra, art. [F]. 46 Peace Treaty, supra, art. 6(3), (4)(a); Cowell, supra. 47 Peace Treats, supra, art. 6(4)(a). 48 Id., art. (6)(4)(c).
49 Brierly, The Law of Nations 60 (Waldock ed. 1963). See generally D'Amato, The Concept of Customs in International Law (197 1)� Brownlie, Principles of Public International Law 4-11 (1990) ; Janis. supra, at 35-46: Lauterpacht, The Development of International Law by the Intern- national Courts 368-93 (1958); Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law of the United States § 102 (Henkin, Lowenfeld & Vagts, reporters. 1987); Tunkin, Theorv of International Law 89-203 (Butler, trans., 1974); Verzijl, International Law in Historical Perspective 31-47 (1968). 50 See generally Henkin, How Nations Behave ''S-26, -17. 89-98, 3?0-? 1 (?d ed. 1979): Brownlie, The Realihwnd Effcncy of International Law, 52 Brit. Y.B. Int'l L. I (1981). ). Professor Sanford Clark of the University of Melbourne has explored the reality and richness of customary international law in a domestic setting relating to water. Clark, Tensions between Water Legislation and Customary Right. 30 Nat. Resources J.503 ( 1990). 51 Morganthau, Polilics Among Nations 282 (4th ed. 1967); Falk, The Adequacy of Contemporay Theories of International Law Gaps ill Legal Thinking, 50 Va. L. Rev. 231 (1964). 52 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 158-62, 167. The classic description of this process is found in McDougal & Schlei, The Hydrogen Bomb Test in Perspective: Lawful Measures for Security. 64 Yale L.J. 648 ( 1955). See also de Vissher, Theory and Reality in International Law (1968).
53 The point was made by H.L.A. Hart more than thirty years ago. See Hart, supra, at 222-25. 54 See, e.g., Bloch, Feudal Society 114 (L.A. Manyon, trans., 1961 Havelock, Preface to Plato 121-22 (1963) ; Kern, Kingship and Law in the Middle Ages 179 (Chrimes, trans., 1939)� Collins & Skover, Parate.vts, 44 Stan. L. Rev. 509, 516-21 (1992). 55 ICJ Statute, supra, art. 38(1)(d). See generally Brownlie, supra, at 24-25; Janis, supra, at 66-69: Lauterpacht, supra, at 23-25. 56 See Brownlie, supra, at 11-14; Janis, supra, at 41-42; McDougal. Lasswell & Vlasic, Law and Public Order in Spnce 82, 115-19 (1963); McNair, The Law of Treaties 216-18 (1961); Stone, Legal Controls in International Law 135 ( 1954); Tunkin, /s Genernl International Law Customary Law Onlv?, 4 Eur. J. Int'l L. 534 ( 1993). 57 Brownlie, supra, at 14-15, 30-31; Sloan, United Nations General Assembly Resolutions in Our Chnnging World (1991)� Joyner, U.N. General Assembly Resolutions and International Law- Rethinking the Contemporary Dynamics of Norm-Creation, 11 Cal. W. Int'l L.J. 445 (1981)� ); Seidl-Hohenveldern, International Economic "Soft-Law, " 163 Hague Recueil des Courses 165, 194-213 ( 1979). 58 Brownlie, supra, at 19-24; Janis, svtpra, at 66-69; Lauterpacht, supra, at 1-25; Rosenne, 2 The Law and Practice of the International Court 611-13 (1965); Akehurst, The Hierarclry of Sources in International Law, 47 Brit. Y.B. lnt'1 L. 273 (1975).
59 Brownlie, supra, at 5; Janis, supra, at 38-43. 60 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 161. See also Bilder, Some Limitations ofAdjudication as an International Dispute Settlement Technique, 23 Va. J. lnt'l L. 1 ( 1982); Falk, The Beirut Raid and the International Law of Retaliation, 63 Am. J. Int'i L. 415 (1969). 61 See Dellapenna, Surface Water in the Iberian Peninsula. An Opportunity for Cooperation or a Source of Conflict? 59 Tenn. L. Rev. 803, 814-22 (1992) [hereinafter Iberian Peninsula]; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley. supra, at 37-40. 62 For illustrative works on the law of transboundary surface waters, see Draft Articles, supra; Berber, Rivers in International Law (Batstone, trans., 1959); Chauhan, Settlement of Water Law Disputes in International Drainage Basins (1981); Kaeckenbeeck, International Rivers (1919) ; Report of the U.N. Commission for Europe. Legal Aspects of Hydro-Electric Development of Rivers and Lakes of Common Interest, 95-152 U.N. Doc. E/ECE/136 (1952); Smith, The Economic Uses of International Rivers ( 1931 ); Teclaff, Water Law in Historical Perspective (1985); Bilder, lnterna- tional Law and Natural Resources Policies, 20 Nat. Resources J. 452 (1980); Hostie, Problems of International Lan Concerning Irrigation of Arid Lands, 31 Int'l Affairs 6l ( 1955); Schwebel. The Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/348,  11 Y.B. Int'i L. Comm'n 76-82: Utton, International Streams and Lakes Cenerall_v, in 5 Waters and Water Rights, supra, ch. 49. 63 See generally, Dellapenna. Jordan Valley, supra, at 40-45; Dellapenna, Treaties, supra, at 51-56; Ely & Wolman, Administration, in The Law of International Drainage Basins, supra, at 124: Teclaff, supra, at l 13-203.
64 Declaration of Principles, supra, Annex III, § 1 ("equitable utilization"). 65 Common Agenda, supra, § 3(a) ("rightful shares"); Declarntion Terminating Belligerency, supra, § [F] ("rightful allocations"); Peace Treaty. .supra, art. 6. 66 See genernlly International Groundwater Law (Teclaff & Utton eds. 1981 ); Barberis, The Develop- ment of the International Lnw of Transboundary Groundwater, 31 Nat. Resources J. 167 (1991)� ); Hayton & Utton, Transboundarv Groundwaters: The Bellagio Draft Treay, 29 Nat. Resources J. 663 (1989) ; International Law Ass'n, International Rule.s on Groundwater, Report of the Sivn,-Sec- ond Conference 21, 231-85 (Seoul, 1986); Rodgers & Utton, The lxtapa Draft Agreement Relating to the Use of Transboundary Groundwaters, in Transboundary Resources Law 151 (Utton & TecIaff eds. 1987); Keleher, Note, Mexican-United States Shared Groundwnter: Can It Be Man- aged?, I Geo. Int'l EnvtI. L. Rev. 113 ( 1988). 67 Draft Articles, sura, art. 4� Water in the Middle East, supra, at 166-67.
68 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 164-65. This theory has one of its best known expressions in a published opinion by U.S. Attorney-General Harmon. 21 Op. Att'y Gen. ? 274,281-82(1898). The "Harmon Doctrine" has been disapproved by the U.S. State Department, Memorandum to the Legal Advisor. Nov. 23, 1942, in 3 Whiteman, Digest of International Law 950-54 (1964). 69 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 165; Lester, River Pollution in International Lnw, 57 Am. J. Int'1 L. 828, 832 (1963). 70 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 165-66. 71 Draft Articles, supra, arts. 5-7. 72 Lammers, Pollution of International Watercourses 18 (1984)� Teclaff, supra; McCaffrey, International Organizations and the Holistic Approach to Water Problems, 31 Nat. Resources J. 139, 143 ( 1991 ); Hanqin, Relativity in International Water Lnw, 3 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 45. 46-48 (1992). 73 See, e.g.. Case of the Territorial Jurisdiction of the Int'l Comm'n of the Oder River, [ 929] P.C.LJ., ser. A, No. 23 at 27: The Lake Lanoux Arbitration (France v. Spain), 24 I.L.R. 101. 139 (1957), digested in 53 Am. J. Int'l L. 156. 170 (1959); The Zarumilla River Arbitration (Ecuador v. Brazil), Infonne de las Relaciones Exteriores a la Naci6n 623 (Quito 1946), translated in Griffin, The Use of Waters of International Drainage Basins under Customary International Law, 53 Am. J. Int'l L. 50, 61 ( 1959). See generally Utton, supra, § 49.03(b). 74 These are collected in Berber, supra: Report of the U.N. Commission for Europe, suprn; Smith, suprn;
Schwebel, supra, at 76-82, 88-90� Utton, supra. § 49.03(a). 75 See generally Berber, supra, at 25, 272-74� O'Connell, International Law 556-58 (2d ed. 1970); I Oppenheim, International Law 474-75 (Lauterpacht ed. 8th ed. 1955): Smith, supra, at 150-51; Teclaff, supra, at 152� Alheritiere, Settlement of Public International Disputes on Shared Re- sources: Elements of a Compnrative Study of International Instrument.s, in Tran.sboundaw Re.sources Lay, supra, at 139-49� Andrassy, L'Utilization des beaux des bassins fluviaux interna- tionallv, 16 Revue Egyptienne de Droit International [hereinafter Revue Egyptienne] 23 (1960) : Caponera, Pntterns of Cooperation in International Water Law, in Transboundary Resources Law. supra, at I, 3-10; Fahmi, International River Law for Non-Navignble Rivers with Special Refer- ence to the Nile. 23 Revue Egyptienne 39 ( 1967 Goldenman, Adapting to Climate Change: A Study 'i, of International Rivers and Their Legal Arrangements, 17 Ecol. L.Q. 741 (1990); Schwebel, supra, at 82-85, 87-88, 91-103: Utton, supra, § 49.03(e). 76 McCaffrey, supra, at 141. The project was begun in 1954 and produced an interim report to the Association's Conference in New York in 1958. Int'l L. Ass'n, Resenrch Project on the Law and Uses of International Rivers 197-98 (1959) ("N.Y.U. Conference"). 77 Int'l L. Assoc., The Helsinki Rules on the Use.s of the Waters ofiiitet-iiational Rivers (Rep. of the 52d Conf., adopted at Helsinki, Aug. 20, 1966) [hereinafter Helsinki Rules]. 78 McCaffrey, supra, at 141. 79 Helsinki Rules, suprn, at 7-8 [art. II & comment (a)]. 80 Id. at 7-8. 81 Id. art. IV. The phrase "equitable utilization" is similar in both phrasing and meaning to the rule of "equitable apportionment" applied by the Supreme Court of the United States to interstate disputes over surface waters shared between the disputing statesa system that has barely functioned in a society with a strong judicial structure to resolve disputes between users. See Grant, supra; Tarlock, .supra,.
82 See generally McCaffrey, supra, at l�t�l-50. 83 Institut de Droit International, Utilization of Non-Maritime International Waters (Ercept for Navigation), art. 2 (Sept. 4-13, 1961). 84 Inter-American Bar Ass'n, Re.snlution on Principle.s of Law Governing the Uses of lntentational Rivers and Lakes (1957). 85 Decision B (XXXV adopted at the 35th Sess. (1980), in Economic Comm'n for Europe, Two Decades of Co-Operatinn on Water, U.N. Doc. ECE/ENVWA/2, at 1, 3 (1988) [hereinafter ECE]. 86 Decision C (XXXIX), in ECE, supra, at 12, 15. 87 ECE, supra, at 39, 41. 88 See, e.g., Int'l L. Ass'n, Rules on the Relationship beteen Water, Otlrer-Natural Resnurces and the Environment, art. I (adopted at Belgrade, 1980). 89 Restatement (Thi�d), supra, § 601. See also N.Y.U. Conference, supra, at 197. 90 On the structure and purposes of the International Law Commission, see The Work of the International Law Commission (4th ed. 1988); Sinclair, The International Law Commission ( 1987). 91 Draft Articles, supra. The law of international rivers has been on the agenda of the Commission since
1949, although work only began in earnest in 1971. Sinclair, supra, at 27, 40. For a summary history of the Commission's work on international rivers, see Westcoat, Bevond the River Basin: The Changing Geography of International Water Problems and International Watercourse Law, 3 Colo. J. lnt'1 Envtl. L. & Pol'y 301 (1992). 92 Draft Articles, supra, arts. 5, 7. 93 Evenson, Third Report on the Law of Non-Navigntionnl Watercourses, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/348,  II Y.B. lnt'l L. Comm'n 80-81; Schwebel, suprn, at 85. See nlso Bourne, Principles and Planned Measures, 3 Colo. J. lnt'1 Envtl. L. & Pol'y 65, 73-77 (1992)� McCaffrey, supra, at 150-61. 1. 94 McCaffrey, The Law of International Watercourses,: Some Recent Developments and Unanswered Questions, 17 Den. J. Int'l L. & Pol'y 505, 509-10 (1989). See also Bourne, supra, at 77-82; Handl, Tlce International Law Commission's Draft Articles on the Law of International Watercourses (General Principles and Planned Measures): Progressive or Retrogressive Development of International Law?, 3 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 123, 129-33 (1992)� Okidi, "Preservation and Protection " under the 1991 ILC Draft Articles on the Law of International Watercourses, 3 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 143 (1992).
95 Draft Articles, supra, art. 10. Article 6 describes, in highly general terms, the factors to be considered in determining whether a use is reasonable and an apportionment is equitable. 96 See the text supra at note 69. 97 Bourne, supra, at 92; Garretson, The Nile Basin, in The Law of International Drainage Basins, supra, at 256, 264-65. See generally Westcoat, supra. The exceptions generally occur in situations where a region is colonized by a technologically more developed culture from outside the region. Perhaps the most notable example is the United States relative to Mexico. See Sz6kely, "General Principles, and "P(a�tned Measures" Provisions in the International Law Commission's Draft Articles on the Non-Navigationa( Uses of International Watercourses: A Mexican Point of Vie\\'. 3 Colo. J. Int'1 Envtl. L. & Pol'y 93 ( 1992). 98 Schwebel, suprn, at 98-100. 99 Id. at 99-107; Helsinki Rules, supra, at 19-20 [commentary to Art. X]; Inter'l L. Ass'n, sura, art. 1. See generally, McCaffrey, supra, at 144-50� Utton, supra, §§ 49.04. 49.10. 100 Ann. Digest & Rep. of Pub. Int'l L. Cases 128 (Wrest. 1927). See also Evenson, supra, at 100 : Schwebel, supra, at 102.
101 See also Bourne. supra, at 82-92: Utton, suprn, §§ 49.05, 49.06. 102 See generally Coase, The Problem of Social Cost, 3 J.L. & Econ. 1 ( 1960). 103 As of this writing, the revised text of the Draft Articles has not yet been published officially. I have received copies of the revised text, prepared for publication, from several persons who attended the meeting of the International Law Commission to review and revise the second reading of the Draft Articles. 104 Rapporteur Rosenstock's report in preparation for the second reading has been published by the United Nations. His proposed text of article 10 varies in some respects from that finally approved by the International Law Commission. Rosenstock, Second Report on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses oflnterizational Watercourses. U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/462 (Apr. 21, 1994).
105 See Schwebel, supra, at 93-107; Utton, supra, § 49.04, at 22-25. 106 The permutations of this phrase are summarized in Schwebel, supra, at 93; Utton, supra, at 23-24. 107 E.rchange of Notes Between the British and French Governments Respecting the Boundary Line Between Syria and Palestine from the Mediterranean to El Hamme, Mar. 7, 1923, 22 L.N.T.S. 364;
Agreement of Good Neighborly Relations Between the British Covernment on Behalf of the Territories of Palestine and the French Government on Behalf of Syria and Great Lebanon, Feb. ?, 1926, 56 L.N.T.S. 79. See generally Water in the Middle East, supra, at 30; Hirsch, Utilisation of International Rivers in the Middle East, 50 Am. J. Int'I L. 81, 91 n.40 ( 1956); Louis, Les Eux du Jourdain, [ 1965] Annuaire Franqais de Droit International 832, 860-81. 1. 108 Statement of Aba Eban, Israeli Ambassador, to the Security Council, U.N. Security Council, Official Records, VIII/633, at 26 (1953). Jordan does have a treaty with Syria regarding the division of the waters of the Yarmuk. Agreement of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the Syrian Arab Republic for the Utilization of the Waters of the Yarmuk Rivet; Sept. 3, 1987, 184 U.N.T.S. 15. 109 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 167; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 41. 1. 110 Saliba, supra, at 23-25, 29-31, 75-81, 94-96,142-43; Dellapenna, Jor-dan Valley, supra, at 41. III 1 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 168. 112 Id. at 167-68, 173-74; Dellapenna, Jordan Vallev supra, at 41. 1. 113 Saliba, supra, at 144; Water in the Middle East, supra, at -l3--4-l. The headwaters diversion plan contributed to the ensuing Six Day War in 1967. Israel's occupation of the Golan Heights during that war blocked any possible diversion scheme. 114 Water in the Middle East, supr-a, at 92-95.
115 Saliba, supra. at 93-94, 99-10 l03-104, 107-12, 142-46: Water in the Middle East, supra, at 168: Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 41-42. 1 l6 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 23. Israeli authorities also sometimes claimed that the Johnston Plan amounted to a rule of special custom that partitioned the waters of the Jordan. Doherty, Jordan Waters Conflict, 553 Int'l Conciliation 1, 51 (1965). Israeli authorities abo sometimes referred to the rule of equitable utilization. Doherty, supra, at 56-59. 117 Technically this is not so as most nations of the world continue to recognize the Golan Heights as part of Syria, and even Israel claims only a "security zone" in the south of Lebanon. There is substantial disgreement within Israel over whether Israel has annexed the Golan or merely extended Israeli law to the region as an interim measure to replace the vacuum created by the departure of the Syrian authorities and most of the populace. See Kliot, supra, at 184-86; Sheleff, Application of Israeli Law to the Golan Heights ls Not Annexation, 20 Brook. J. Int'l L. 333 ( 1994); Maoz, Application of Israeli Lava, to the Golan Heights ls Annexation. 20 Brook. J. Int'l L. 356 (1994). l 18 Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 42. 119 Id. 120 Declaration of Principles,supra, Annex III, § 1. 121 Common Agenda, supra, § 3(a). This commitment is not so clear as the commitment in the DOP, but nonetheless seems real. See the text supra at notes 64-65. 122 See the authorities collected supra at note 21. 1.
123 Kally, supra, at 32-34� Kliot, supra, at ?(10-202; Saliba, supra, at 84-112; Water in the Middle East, supra, at 39-45, 168-69. On the negotiation of the Johnston Plan, Stevens, Jordan River Pnrtition ( 1965); Eric Johnston, Jordan River Vallev Development, 29 Dep't State Bull. 892 ( (953); Johnston, Omission to the Middle East, 30 Dep't State Bull. 283 (1954) ; Johnston, The Near East and the West, 30 Dep't State Bull. 790 (1954)� Doherty, supra, at S Wishart, The Breakdown of the Jnhnstnn Negotiations over the J,ocdan Waters, 26 Middle Eastern Stud. 536 (1990). See generally Sohn, Unrntified Treaties as a Source of Customary International Law, in Realism in Law-Making 231-89 (Bos & Siblesz eds. 1986). 124 Kally, supra, at 48-51; Kliot, supra, at 231-43� Dellapenna, supra, at 29-30� Kolars, Water Resources in the Middle East, in Sustahtable Water Resources Management in Arid Countries 103, 113-14 (Schiller ed. 1992). There are also highly disputed claims that Israel occasionally supplements these supplies with waters taken from the Litani River in southern Lebanon. 125 Israeli policies regarding the use of water in the Occupied Territories are found in a series of orders issued by the Israeli military. Order no. 92 (Nov. 27, 1967)� Order no. 158 (Dec. 29, 1967); Order no. 291 (Jan. 22, 1969); Order no. 457 (Sept. 12, 1972) ; Order no. 498 (May 4, 1974) (the last is a special arrangement responding to the critical situation regarding water in the Gaza Strip). On the discrimina- tory application of these policies, see Benvenisti, 1986 Report: Demographic, Economic, Legal, Social and Political Developments in the West Bnnk S- /0. 20-22 ( 1986); Benvenisti, The West Bank Data Project 12-15 (1984); Benvenisti, Abu-Zayed & Rubinstein, The West Bank Handbook 1, 223-25 (1986) ; Gharaibeh, The Economies of the West Bank and Gaza Strip 62-62 ( 1985); Kahan, Agriculture and Water in the West Bank and Gaza 27-28 (1983)� Kretzmer, The Legal Status of Arabs ht Israel 48, 118-20 (1987) ; Ott, Palestine in Perspective: Politics, Human Rights and the West Bank 15-17 ( 1980); Roy, The Gaza Strip Survey 38-51 (1986); Selbat, Water Policy Alterna- tives for Israel (198 1); Royal Sci. Soc'y, West Bank Resources and its Significance to Israel 7-10 (1979) ; Benvemsti & Gvitzman, Harnessing International Law to Determine Israeli-Pnlestinian Water Rights: The Mountain Aquifer, 33 Nat. Resources J. 543 (1993) : Davis et al., Israel's Water Policies, 9 J. Palestine Stud. No. 2, at 19 ( 1980); Dichter, The Legal Status ofIsrael's Water Policies in the Occupied Territories, 35 Harv. Int'l L.J. 565 ( 1994); el-Hindi, Note, The West Bank Aquifer and Conventions Regarding Laws of Belligerent Occupation, 11 Mich. J. Int'i L. 1400 ( 1990); Khouri, Israel Drains West Bank Waters, 71 Middle East 38 (1979) : Stork, Water and Israel a Occupation Strategy, 13 Merip Rep. 19 ( 1983); Wolf, supra, at 799. 126 Kally, supra, at 40-45; Kliot, supra, at ??5-31; Dellapenna, Jordan Uallev, supra, at 30-31; al-Fataftah & Abu Tileb, Jordan's Water Action Plan, in Sustainable Water Resources Management in Arid Countries, supra, at 153� Kolars, supra, at 11-l-15; al-Weshah, Jordan's Water Re.sources in Technical Perspective·, 17 Water Int'i !24 (1992); Wolf, supra, at 799-801, 808. 127 Kally, supra, at 5 1-54.98-105: Kliot, supra, at 243-49� Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 32-35:
Pearce, Wells of Conflict on the West Bank, New Scientist 36 (June I, 1991 ); Wolf, sura, at 799-801, 1 , 809. 128 See Arzt & Zughaib, Return to the Negotiated Lands: The Likelihood and Legalitv of a Population Transfer between Israel and a Future Palestinian State, 2-4 lnt'1 L. & Pol. 1399 (1992) ; Quigley, Soviet Immigration to the West Bank: Is It Legal?, 21 Ga. J. Int'l & Comp. L. 387 ( 1991). 129 Wilford, Collapse of Earliest Known Empire Is Linked to Long, Harsh Drought, N.Y Times, Aug. 24, 1993, at C 1. 130 The need to import new water into the Jordan Valley was specifically recognized in the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Peace Treaty, supra, art. 6(3), (4)(a). See generally Kally, supra, at 63-71, 73, 94-98. 105-12; Starr & Stoll. U.S. Foreign Policy on Water Resources in the Middle East (1987). 131 See Dellapenna, The Delawnre and Susguehannn River Ba.sins, in 6 Waters and Water Rights, supra, at 125: Grant, supra: Tarlock, supra. 132 Van Alstyne, The Justiciability of International River Disputes: A Study in the Case Method, 1964 Duke L.J. 307; Utto, supra, § 49.05. See generally Falk, International Jurisdiction: Horizontal and Vertical Conception.s of Legal Order, 32 Temple L.Q. 295 ( 1959).
133 Berber, supra; Report of the U.N. Comm'n for Europe, supra; Smith, supra; Utton, supra, § 49.03(a). The primary example of treaty management in the Middle East relates to the Nile River, although this treaty regime fails to adequately address the needs of the states in the Nile basin in several respects. See generally Kally, supra, at 35-40� Kliot, supra, at 15-99, 266-70; Teclaff, supra, at 433-36� Waterbury, Hydropolitics of the Nile Valley ( 1979); Garretson, strpra; Okidi, Review of Treatises on Constunptive Utilization of Waters of Lake Victoria and Nile Drainage System, 22 Nat. Resources J. 161 (1982). On the shortcomings of the Nile basin agreement, see Dellapenna, Treaties, supra, at-l7-51. 1. 134 Spanish-Portuguese Agreement on Regulation of Boundary Waters, signed November 20, 1866, as an Annex to the Convention on Boundaries between Spain and Portugal, signed on September 29. lii6.l, 129 Consol. T.S. -153. See al.so Frontier Treaty, between Austria and Czechoslovakia, Dec. 12. 1928. art. 28(3), 108 L.N.T.S. 57.
135 See Garfinkle, supra, at 40, 164-69; Davis. Water Shortage Could Lead to War, Jerusalem Post, June 9. 1990, at 9; Joffe. The Issue of Water in the Middle East and North Africa, in Resource Politics: Freshwater and Regional Relations 65, 73 (Thomas & Howlett eds. 1993); Riyadh, Israel and the Arab Water in Historical Perspective, in Israel and Arab Water, supra, at 10. See also Baxter, supra, at 451-53, 459-60 (on India and Pakistan accusing each other of cheating before their current treaty regime was developed). 136 Convention concemallt les lacs et cows de l'eau cornrnurt, signed Oct. 26,1905, 34 Martens N.R.G. (2e ser.) 711 [hereinafter Convention concemallt de l'eatr conunurr]. See also Convention between Sweden and Norway on Certain Questions Relating to the Law of Watercourses, May 11, 1929, art. 12(1), 120 L.N.T.S. 277 [hereinafter Swedish-Not�·egiarr Cotrvention]. 137 . Treats between Great Britain and the United States Relating to Boundary Waters and Questions Arising between the United States and Canada, signed Jan. 11. 1909, arts. III, IV, IX, X, 36 Stat. 2449. T.S. 548 [hereinafter Boundary Waters Agreements]; United States- Canadian Treaty of Jail. 17, I961, for the Co-Operative Development of the Columbia River Basin, arts. XIV, XVI, 15 U.S.T. 1555. T.I.A.S. 5638 [hereinafter Columbia Basin Treaty.]. See generallv Utton, Canadiarr International Waters, supra. 138 . This is true of the relations between Canada and the United States regarding their shared waters. See Teclaff, supra, at �128-29, 438-43, .158-61; Utton, supra. The Rhine exhibits a similar situation. Teclaff, supra, at 450-51 n.28. I39 . Protocol Between Great B< tf<;t« and ltulv Delimiting Spheres of Influellce in East Africa, signed Apr. 15, 1891, art. 3. 83 Brit. & For. State Papers 21; Treaties between tlte United Kingdont and
Ethiopia and Between the United Kingdom, Italy, und Ethiopia, Relative to the Frontiers Between the Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea, signed May 15, 1902, art. 3, Cmd. No. 1370 (T S. No. 16 of 1902), 23 Hertslet, Comm. Treaties 344. For studies of the early agreements limiting Ethiopia's right to develop the waters of the Atbara and the Blue Nile, see Batstone, The Utilization of Nile Waters, 7 Int'l & Comp. L.Q. 523, 551-55 (1959); Garretson, supra, at 256, 291-92; Hosni, The Nile Regime, 17 Revue Egyptienne 70, 89-91 (196 1); Okidi, Review of Treaties on Consumptive Utilization of Waters of Lake Victoria and Nile Drainage System, 22 Nat. Resources J. 161, 192-93 ( 1982). 140 . U.A.R.-Sudan Agreement on the Full Utili;ation of the Nile Waters, signed Nov. 8, 1959, 453 U.N.T.S. 51, arts. 1-3 [hereinafter Nile Treaty]. See Dellapenna, Treaties, supra, at 47-51. 1. 141 . Converttion Between Spain and Portugal to Regulate the Hydro-Electric Developtnent of the International! Section of the River Duoro, signed Aug. 11, 1927, art. 2, 82 L.N.T.S. 133 [hereinafter Duoro Convention]. See Dellapenna, Iberian Peninsula, supra, at 813. 142 . Duoro Convention, supra, arts. 8, 18. 143 . Id. art. 14. Portugal and Spain extended the authority of the Joint Commission to other sorts of hydraulic works while making the division of the hydroelectric potential of the Duoro more flexible in 1964. In 1968, the Joint Commission's authority was extended to other boundary waters. See Dellapenna, Iberian Peninsula, supra, at 813. 144 Duoro Convention, supra, art. 16. 145 Id.
146 Id. art. 21. 1. 147 See, e.g., United States-Cnnndinn Trean Relating to Uses of the Waters of the Niagara River, signed Feb. 27, 1950, arts. 4, 6, 1 U.S.T. 694, T.I.A.S. No. 2130; Convention du Rhone pour l'amenagement de la puissance hydraulique entre la France et Ia Suisse, signed Oct. 4, 1913, art. 5, 5 Martens N.R.G. (3e ser.) 291 [hereinafter Convention du Rhone]; Convention concernant l'amenagement de la chute du Doubs près de Chatelot, Nov. 19. 1930, art. 5, 26 Martens N.R.G. (3e ser.) 314 [hereinafter Convention du Doubs]. 148 U.S. Convention with Mexico, signed May 21, 1906, 34 Stat. 2953, T.S. No. 455; Treaty Respecting Utili�ation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande, signed Feb. 3, 1944, 59 Stat. 1219, T.S. No. 994 [hereinafter Colorado & Tijuana Treany]. See generally Teclaff, supra, at 429-33; Utton, Mexican International Waters, in 5 Waters and Wnter Rights, supra, ch. 51. 149 The Indus Waters Treaty, signed Sept. 19, 1960, art. 2, 419 U.N.T.S. 126. 150 Id. art. IV. I51 For the role of the World Bank, see Baxter, supra, at 457-78. See generally Teclaff, supra, at 163-65, 183-84: Teclaff, supra, at 436-38; Biswas, Indus Water Treaty: The Negotiating Process, 17 Water Int'I 201 (1992); Concannon, supra. 152 Indus Waters Treaty, supra, arts. VIII, IX.
153 U.N. Dep't of Econ. & Soc. Aff., Integrated River Basin Development,. U.N. Doc. E/3066 ( 1958) (I quote the most salient conclusion of this report infra at note 171 ). 154 See the authorities collected supra at note 137. 155 See the authorities collected supra at note 148. 156 Almost any development involving international cooperation could be selected to exemplify the increased expense and inordinate delay of such ad lroc approaches. Consider, for example, the numerous proposals to develop the Yarmuk River, nearly all of which thus far have not been realized. See Garfinkle, supra, at 39-40, 164-69, 184-85; Water in the Middle East, supra, at 43-47, 50-53; Schmida, Israeli Water Projects and Their Repercussions on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, in Israel and Arab Water, supra, at 25, 27-28. 157 See, e.g., Treaty for Ama�onian Co-operation, art. I, reproduced in 17 Int'l Leg. Materials 1046 (1978); Evenson, supra, at 44-45. 158 See Teclaff, supra, at 427-28. 159 The most succinct and emphatic statement of this conclusion within U.N.-sponsored activities was the opening statement in a working paper prepared by the U.N. Secretariat for the Fourth Regional Technical Conference on Water Resources Development in Asia and the Far East, held in Colombo in 1960: "River basin development projects are now necessarily multipurpose and lead to unified development." U.N. Doc. No. St./ECAFE/Ser.F/19, at 61 (1962). 160 Draft Articles, supra, arts. 8-19, 26, 27. See generally Nanda, The Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses: Draft Articles on Protcction and Preservation of Ecosystems. Hannful Conditions and Emergence Situations, and Protection af Water Installation, 3 Colo. J. lnt'i Envtl. L. & Pol'y 175 (1992); Utton. supra, § 49.09.
161 Draft Articles, supra, arts. 8, 26. Article 26 became article 24 at the second reading without a change in the text; articles 24 and 25 of the original text are now articles 27 and 28. See also General Assembly, Report of the United Nations Water Conference, Mar del Plata, Argentina, U.N. Pub. E/77/II/A/12 ( 1977 at 53 ("It is necessary for States to cooperate in the case of shared water resources in recognition of the growing economic, environmental and physical interdependencies across international frontiers. Such cooperation ... must be exercised on the basis of the equality, sovereignty and territorial integrity of all States"). 162 The Indus River Basin Case (the Sind v. the Punjab), Report of the Indus (Rao) Commission 10-11 (1942). ).
163 Water in the Middle East, supra, at 171-73; Dellapenna, Iberinn Peninsula, supra, at 816-17; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra, at 39-40� Dellapenna, Treaties, supra, at 51-54. 164 Utton, supra, § 49.09. 165 See generally Teclaff, supra, at 443-48. 166 Traite d' accord defmitif entre S.M. Imperiale et Roynle Apostolique et L.H.P. les seigneurs etats generalu des provinces unies, signed Nov. 8, 1785, art. 6, 4 Martens R.T. (2e ed.) 56. 167 See, e.g., Congress of Vienna, Final Act, signed June 9, 1815, arts. 108, 109, 2 Martens N.R. '+27: Traité de limites entre leur- inajestis le roi de Prusse et le roi des Pays-Bas, signed Oct. 7, 1816, art. 29, 3 Martens N.R. 54; Peace Ti-eaty Between the Allied and Associated Powers and German 'i,, signed at Versailles, France, June 28, 1919, art. 331, 13 U.S. For. Rel. 655-56� Convention Instituting the Definitive Statute of the Danube, signed July 23, 1921, 26 L.N.T.S. 177� Convention Instituting the Statute ofnat,igation of the Elbe, signed Feb. 22, 1922, 26 L.N.T.S. 223� Exchange of Notes on the Rhine Commission, signed Nov. 5. 1945, 60 Stat. 1934, T.I.A.S. No. 157 Convention Rewarding the Regime of Navigation of the Danube, signed Aug. 18, 1948, 33 U.N.T.S. 199.
168 See, e.g., Boundary Waters Agreement, supra; Convention concernant de 1'east <"o<7!;?!Hn, supra: Convention du Doubs, supra; Convention du Rhone, supra; Duoro Convention, supra; Swedish- Nor-wegian Convention, supra; Colorado & Tijuana Treaty, supra. 169 /ndus Waters Treaty, supra, arts. 8. 9; Nile Treaty, supra, art. 4. 170 Boundarv Waters Treaty, supra. 171 Id. arts. 3, 4. 172 See, e.g., Columbia Basin Treaty, supra. See gener-ally Krutilla, The Columbia River Treaty: The Economics of an International River Basin Development ( 19671: Piper, The International Law of the Great Lakes (1967) ; Teclaff, supra, at 428-29, 438-43, 458-61; Johnson, The Columbia Basin, in The Law of International Drainage Basins, supra, at 167; Symposium. U.S.-Canadian Resource Issues, 26 Nat. Resources J. 201 ( 1986); Utton, Canadian International Waters, supra. 173 Teclaff, supra, at �l-16-47. 174 Colorado & Tijuana Treaty, supra, art. 2.
175 Supra note 153. 176 Dellapenna, Treaties, supra, at 54. 177 See the text supra at note 99. 178 The exceptions generally occur in situations where a region is colonized by a technologically more developed culture from outside the region. Perhaps the most notable example is the United States relative to Mexico. See Szekely, supra. 179 Goldie, Equity and the International Management of Transboundary Resources, in Transbound- arv Resources Law, supra, at 103-37; Utton, supra, § 49.03.
180 For the details of the Johnston Plan. see Water in the Middle East, supra, at 39-.l?. 181 Without the text of the relevant annex to the Peace Treaty, I cannot be entirely certain of this point. See Peace Trea y, supra, art. 6( 1 ); Cowell, supra. If so, the result resembles a plan floated by Hillel Shuval before the Oslo negotiations. Shuval, Approaches to Re.solving the Water Conflict.s beteen Israel and Her NeighborsA Regional Water-for-Peace Plan, 17 Water lnt'1133 (1992). See also Wolf, supra, at 813-19. 182 For an argument that such uncertainty might promote cooperation rather than conflict, see Bendor, Uncertainy and the Evolution of Cooperation, 37 J. Conflict Resolution 709 ( 1993). 183 Id. art. 6(4)(c). 184 Peace Treaty, supra, art. 6(3). 185 U.N. Dep't of Econ. & Soc. Aff., supra, at 1.
186 Joyce Starr has particularly identified herself with proposals to import water, although she has not proposed a partition such as 1 suggest in the text. See Starr & Stoll, supra; Starr, supra. 187 Compare the partition of the waters of the Indus Valley between India and Pakistan. See generally, 'i lndus Waters Treaty, supra, art. 2; Teclaff, supra, at l63-165, 183-84; Teclaff, supra, at 436-38; Baxter, supra, Concannon, supra. 188 Kally, supra, at xvi; Teclaff, supra, at 28-32, -1?-47; Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Cornparative Study of Total Power ( 1957). 189 See the text supra at notes 21-33. 190 See generally Teclaff, supra, at l13-203; Dellapenna, supra, at 40-45; Ely & Wolman, supra, 191 Peace Trcan. supra, art. 6(3).
192 See generally Garfinkle, supra; Dellapenna, Jordan Valley, supra. 193 Peace Treaty, supra, art. 6(3) ("regional and international cooperation"). 194 Caponera. Principles of Water Law and Administration.: National nnd International 73 ( 1992). 195 Muhammad Ibn Isma'il (al-Bukhari), 2 Les Traditions islamiques 104, 108 (1977). See also Yakub Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-khnrndj: le livre de /'/
204 See also Panel of Experts 011 Legal Institutional Aspects of Int'! Water Re.s. De\'., Management of International Water Resources ( 1975); Dellapenna. Jordan Valle y, supra, at 40-45; Le Marquand, Politics of International River Basin Cooperation and Management, in Water in a Developing World 147 (Utton & Teclaff eds. 1978); Rodgers & Utton, supr-a; Utton, International Ground>l�ater Management The Case of the U.S. -Mexican Frotitiet: in Transboundary Resources Law, supra, at 157. 205 Cf. Zviagelshaia, Steps versus Solutions in the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 518 Annals of Am. Academy Pol. Sci. & Soc'y 109 (t991). ). See generally Timing the De-Escalation of International Conflicts (Kriesberg & Thorson eds. 199 1). ). 206 Controversies over non-consumptive uses can be resolved relatively easily by adherence to regulations designed to protect the resource and to assure general access to it. See. e.g., Protecting the Gulf off Aqaba: A Regional Environmental Challenge (Sandler et al. eds. 1993).