This study considers the unimaginable size of the losses of printed materials as it appears from an analysis of early eighteenth-century official bookshop inventories at Groningen, of setting off local seventeenth and eighteenth-century university records of doctoral dissertations and numbers of students defending course disputations against the recorded survivals, and of setting off the number of known printers of the period and the total number of years when they worked against their preserved production.
Plantin restarts in late October1563with two presses starts a third on 21 December and has got through some 140 reams plus waste in ten weeks by the end of the year. Extrapolated annual average per press nearly 500 reams. Twelve weeks later on 25 March 1564 he starts press 4 and 28 weeks later again on 5 October press 5. This means an average of just four presses for the year producing 635 edition sheets an average per press of 159 using up 415 reams per press including waste. He soon adds another two presses repeatedly gets into financial difficulties but survives.