Found or Recovered?

Competing Views of Paradise in Late Nineteenth-Century Hawaiian Landscape Painting

in Religion and the Arts
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In the 1880s, American artists Charles Furneaux, Joseph D. Strong, and Jules Tavernier—who later became known as the “Volcano School”—traveled to the Kingdom of Hawai‘i and produced dozens of landscapes ranging from otherworldly scenes of volcanoes to vistas of untouched, pristine beaches. While white, upper-class landowners in Hawai‘i served as the primary patrons of such paintings, the reigning monarch, King David Kalākaua, also commissioned his own sweeping landscapes from the same artists. This article focuses on the two competing narratives of paradise at work in both these paintings and writings about the Hawaiian Islands in the 1880s. “Paradise” could invoke a Romantic position, one that celebrated the landscape’s wildness and equated nature in its pure state with the lost Garden of Eden. On the other hand, Kalākaua’s commissions reflect what environmental historian Carolyn Merchant calls the Recovery Narrative: a story of humans reversing the effects of the biblical Fall by subjugating desolate and distant wilds and transforming them into fruitful lands. This article argues that Kalākaua’s presentation of “paradise” was part of a multi-pronged but ultimately failed strategy to resist American imperialism and present the Kingdom of Hawai‘i to the West as a prosperous, profitable nation.



  • Figure 1

    Jules Tavernier, Kilauea at Dusk, ca. 1887. Oil on canvas, 14″ × 36″. Courtesy of Mānoa Heritage Center, Honolulu HI.

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  • Figure 2

    Jules Tavernier, Wailuku Falls, ca. 1886. Oil on canvas, 19 7/8″ × 36″. Honolulu Museum of Art, Gift of Mrs. E. Faxon Bishop, 1934 (2563.1).

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  • Figure 3

    Albert Bierstadt, The Rocky Mountains, Lander’s Peak, 1863. Oil on canvas, 73 ½″ × 120 ¾″. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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  • Figure 4

    Edward Arning, Moanalua Dancers at King Kalakaua’s 49th Birthday Hula, 1885. Photograph. Hawai‘i State Archives, Honolulu HI PP-32-9b-004.

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  • Figure 5

    Unknown, “Display of hookupu (gifts) for King Kalakaua’s Jubilee,” 1886. Photograph. Hawai‘i State Archives, Honolulu HI. PP-36-8-008.

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  • Figure 6

    Unknown, “Photo of Joseph Strong Painting of Honolulu Harbor in 1886,” 1886. Photograph. Hawai‘i State Archives, Honolulu HI. PP-39-10-021.

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  • Figure 7

    Jules Tavernier, An Eruption, Hawai‘i ca. late 1880s. Oil on canvas, 10 ¼″ × 28 1/8″. Honolulu Museum of Art, Gift of Hiroshi Isono, 1997 (8706.1).

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