婚姻、革命与法律—陕甘宁边区的离婚法实践

in Rural China
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Abstract

Based on the judicial archive of the Shaan-Gan-Ning Border Region, this article examines the Border Region’s divorce law practice in the context of the Chinese Communist Revolution.

Despite the withdrawal from the Soviet’s radical approach to divorce during the Yenan period, women were encouraged by various Revolution-introduced changes to exercise the right to divorce, and their failure or success in divorce litigation was closely associated with their respective positions or statuses as defined in connection with the Revolution.

On the other side, male peasants, the major social force of the Revolution, experienced a downward movement in the marriage market, and their encounter with Gongjiaren in divorce litigation revealed the gap between the ideal of marriage as anticipated by the lawmakers and the marriage market in the reality. To a large extent, this tension contributed to the development of a mediation-focused judicial system, which would deeply influence the civil justice system of the People’s Republic of China.

(This article is in Chinese.)

摘要

本文利用陕甘宁边区的司法档案, 在中国共产党革命的背景下考察陕甘宁边区的离婚法实践。尽管边区的婚姻立法已从苏维埃时期完全支持离婚的激进立场撤退, 但革命带来的各种现实变化, 尤其是对个人身份的重塑, 仍然激励妇女积极地行使离婚的权利, 而她们在革命中所处的位置或身份对于她们在离婚诉讼中权利的实现有重大关联。作为革命主要社会力量的男性农民在婚姻市场上经历了下滑, 他们和公家人在离婚诉讼中的对抗清楚地显示了立法者预期的婚姻理想和现实的婚姻市场之间的紧张关系。对此法官们创造性地摸索出一套以调解为主要手段的司法技术, 对于中华人民共和国的民事法律制度有根本性的影响。

婚姻、革命与法律—陕甘宁边区的离婚法实践

in Rural China

Sections

References

4

丁玲 (1942):《三八节有感》 载《解放日报》(1942 年 3 月 9 日)。正是基于类似的看法 中央妇委的大部分人在起草 1950 年婚姻法时 都主张限制单方请求离婚的权利。 见邓颖超 (1950):《关于中华人民共和国婚姻法的报告》 引自中国妇女研究网 http://www.wsic.ac.cn/internalwomenmovementliterature/12095.htm; 以及《婚姻法诞生始末》 载 《南京日报》(2010 年 8 月 9 日)。

5

Johnson (1983) Women the Family and Peasant Revolution in China. Chicago: University of Chicago Press pp. 66-67.

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黄宗智 (2006):《离婚法实践—当代中国民事法律制度的起源、虚构和现实》 载黄宗智编《中国乡村研究》第四辑 第 1-52 页。

15

Bernhardt Kathryn. (1994) “Women and the Law: Divorce in the Republic Period” in Bernhardt and Huang eds. Civil Law in Qing and Republic China Stanford: Stanford University Press p. 193.

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Bernhardt Kathryn. (1994) “Women and the Law: Divorce in the Republic Period” in Bernhardt and Huang eds. Civil Law in Qing and Republic China Stanford: Stanford University Press p. 195.

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Huang Philip. (2001) Code Custom and Legal Practice in China Stanford: Stanford University Press p. 199.

25

李维汉 (1944):《陕甘宁边区建设简述》 载盐池县党史办公室编 (1988):《陕甘宁边区概述》 第 29 页 宁夏人民出版社。

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Schoppa Keith. (2000) The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History New York: Columbia University Press p. 96.

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Barlow Tani. (1991) “Theorizing Woman: Funv Guojia Jiating” (Chinese Women Chinese State Chinese Family) on Genders Number 10 Spring 1991 pp. 133-160.

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Diamant Neil. (2001) “The Anatomy of Rural Family Revolution: State Law and the Family in Rural China 1949-1966” in Perry Keller ed. Chinese Law and Legal Theory. England: Dartmouth Publishing Company Limited p. 185.

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