裸露的 A 村与无赖群体——兼以晚清民国时期对游民群体控制作比

in Rural China
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Ne’er-do-wells are a common feature of rural society and have long existed. Before the establishment of new political authority in 1949, constraints on ne’er-do-wells came mainly from endogenous customs and leaders of the ruralities. After 1949, with unprecedented penetration of state authority into the countryside, those endogenous control mechanisms underwent profound changes. In Village A in Shanxi during the collective era, brigade and commune organizations representing the authority of the state served as important checks on unruly behavior by village ne’er-do-wells. Since the coming of the Reform period, traditional checks no longer exist while the authority of the collective state has dissipated. The new village self-rule entities have not enough authority, while the township governments operate under “reversed accountability” (to those above and not those below), leading to “passive inaction” toward the ne’er-do-wells. The result is a nakedly exposed social order, while ne’er-do-wells, ruffians and rogues thrive.

This article is in Chinese.

无赖群体是乡村社会的共生体,在乡村社会长期存在。1949 年新政权成立以前,乡村公共秩序空间内,对无赖的约束主要依靠乡村中自发形成的习惯以及内生的权威领袖来维持。1949年以后,国家政权史无前例地深入乡村,村庄内生的控制机制发生了深刻变动。在山西A村,集体化时期,代表国家权威的队社组织对村庄无赖的不轨行为起了重要的约束作用。改革开放以来,传统的对无赖的约束机制丧失,代表国家的集体化时期的权威不复存在。新的乡村自治组织自治力不足,乡镇政府“逆向问责”制度的运行逻辑使其与基层社会疏离,对无赖群体“消极不作为”。乡村社会秩序处于近乎裸露的状态,无赖痞棍异常活跃。

Rural China

An International Journal of History and Social Science 中国乡村研究