The extradition of political offenders has occasioned a great deal of controversy in Russian-Turkmen relations over the years. Aggravating the problem has been the arrangement between them sanctioning a procedure of summary acquisition of dual citizenship by their nationals. The result was that applications for extradition were often denied on the grounds that the requested country's legal system barred the rendition of local citizens. Ultimately, Turkmenia moved to suspend the operation of the dual citizenship treaty with Russia and assert sole control over the citizenship status of its nationals, along with the claim to their extraditability. The present essay analyzes the background to this dispute and the situation that now exists here since the lapse of the dual citizenship agreement in terms of how these developments are likely to affect the shape of future extradition traffic between the two states.