Rousseau and Critical Theory

in Brill Research Perspectives in Critical Theory
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In Rousseau and Critical Theory, Alessandro Ferrara argues that among the modern philosophers who have shaped the world we inhabit, Rousseau is the one to whom we owe the idea that identity can be a source of normativity (moral and political) and that an identity’s potential for playing such a role rests on its capacity for being authentic. This normative idea of authenticity brings unity to Rousseau’s reflections on the negative effects of the social order, on the just political order, on education, and more generally, on ethics. It is also shown to contain important teachings for contemporary Critical Theory, contemporary views of self-constitution (Korsgaard, Frankfurt and Larmore), and contemporary political philosophy.

Rousseau and Critical Theory

in Brill Research Perspectives in Critical Theory

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References

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AdornoTheodor W. WeberSamuelWeberShierry Prisms (1967) 1997 Cambridge, MA MIT Press

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CrockerLester G. “Rousseau et la Voie du Totalitarisme” Annales de Philosophie Politique 1965 5 137 152

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HabermasJürgen Communication and the Evolution of Society 1979 Boston Beacon Press

HabermasJürgen McCarthyThomas The Theory of Communicative Action Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason (1981) 1987 Volume 2 Boston Beacon Press

HabermasJürgen HohengartenW.M. Postmetaphysical thinking 1988 Cambridge, MA MIT Press

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1

See J.J. RousseauThe Confessions (1770), trans. and introduced by J.M. Cohen, (Harmondsworth: Penguin1953) 327–29.

3

J.J. RousseauDiscourse on the Origin and Foundation of Inequality224.

8

J.J. RousseauEmile. On Education (1762), (London: Dent1993) 6.

10

J.J. RousseauJulie or the New Heloise (1761), trans. J.H. McDowell, (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press1968) book ii letter 3.

19

See H. Marcuse“Der Kampf gegen den Liberalismus in der totalitären Staatsauffassung”Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung1934 2 168.

20

H. MarcuseReason and Revolution. Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory (1941), (Boston: Beacon Press1960) 186.

21

See. H. MarcuseOne-Dimensional Man. Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society (1964), with an Introduction by D. Kellner (London and New York: Routledge2002) 43–44. For a different interpretation of the same Rousseauian paragraph about the legislator in terms of exemplary universalism see below 46–51.

22

M. Horkheimer“Egoismus und Freiheitsbewegung”Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung1936 2 166.

23

M. HorkheimerEclypse of Reason (1947), (London: Continuum2004) 18 and 89.

24

See F. Neumann“Types of Natural Law”Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung1939 3 339.

28

T.W. AdornoNegative Dialectics (1966), trans. by E.B. Ashton (London and New York: Routledge2004) 284.

34

Rousseau Jean-Jacques (1967a) The Social Contract (1762) in J.J. Rousseau The Social Contract and the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality edited by L.G. Crocker (New York: Simon and Schuster 1967) 17–18.

42

J. HabermasPostmetaphysical thinking167.

55

J. HabermasBetween Naturalism and Religion. Philosophical Essays (2005), trans. by C. Cronin, (Cambridge: Polity Press2008) 273.

64

A. Honneth“Idiosyncrasy as a Tool of Knowledge. Social Criticism in the Age of the Normalized Intellectuals” in Pathologies of Reason. On the Legacy of Critical Theorytrans. by J. Ingram (New York: Columbia University Press2009) 185.

66

See TaylorThe Ethics of Authenticity28–29; Ferrara Modernity and Authenticity 24–26 148–149.

67

See TaylorThe Ethics of Authenticity72; Ferrara Modernity and Authenticity 7–24.

68

TaylorThe Ethics of Authenticity73.

69

FerraraModernity and Authenticity23.

70

See FerraraModernity and Authenticity148–149.

76

F. NeuhouserRousseau’s Theodicy of Self-Love3.

83

D. RiesmanThe Lonely Crowd (1950), (New Haven: Yale University Press1964).

84

Chr. LaschThe Culture of Narcissism (1979), (London: Sphere Books1980).

85

Ph. RieffThe Triumph of the Therapeutic (1966), (Harmondsworth: Penguin1973).

86

R. SennettThe Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism (New York: Norton1998); A. Elliott and Ch. Lemert The New Individualism. The Emotional Costs of Globalization (London: Routledge 2006); Z. Bauman Globalization: The Human Consequences (New York: Columbia University Press 1998) and Liquid Modernity (Cambridge: Polity 2000).

92

FrankfurtThe Importance of What We Care About21.

96

T.W. AdornoThe Jargon of Authenticity (1964), trans. by K. Tarnowsli and F. Will, (Evanston: Northwestern University Press1973) 49–60.

97

FrankfurtThe Importance of What We Care About172.

103

Chr. KorsgaardSelf-Constitution (Oxford: Oxford University Press2009) 1.

117

J. HabermasCommunication and the Evolution of Society (Boston: Beacon Press1979) 69–94.

118

See RousseauThe Social Contract 40–48. On the role of the legislator see the discussions offered by R.D. Masters The Political Philosophy of Rousseau (Princeton: Princeton University Press 1968) 354–80 and R. Polin “La fonction du législateur chez J.J. Rousseau” in Jean-Jacques Rousseau et son oeuvre (Paris: Klincksieck 1964) 231–47.

119

RousseauThe Social Contract30–31.

127

J. Rawls“Kantian Constructivism in Moral Theory”Journal of Philosophy1980 88 519. A similar view can be found in Political Liberalism where Rawls states that a conception of justice that passes the test of reflective equilibrium “is the conception that so far as we can now ascertain is the one most reasonable for us” Political Liberalism (1993) Expanded Edition (New York Columbia University Press 2005) 28.

128

RousseauThe Social Contract45.

130

See M. Cooke“Translating Truth”Philosophy and Social Criticism2011 37 (4) 479–491.

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