Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Think tanks demonstrably play a role in diplomacy. Not long ago, the idea of think tank diplomacy would have provoked scepticism, but the nature of diplomacy has changed from a state-centric club to a polylateral network characterised by a diversity of actors and communication methods. As organisations producing independent intellectual outputs to influence public policy, think tanks engage in at least four diplomatic functions: negotiation, communication, information-gathering and promoting friendly relations in international affairs. Case studies show that think tanks both directly perform diplomatic functions and act indirectly as facilitators of diplomacy: as metaphorical hired guns, charm offensive, witnesses and safe space; as a school for diplomats, personal trainers, chief knowledge officer and wise council. Think tanks need to overcome obstacles including resource constraints and relationships with policy-makers to reach their full potential in contributing to diplomacy.

Sections

References

AbelsonD. (2006) A Capitol Idea: Think Tanks and US Foreign PolicyMcGill-Queen’s University PressMontreal.

AbelsonD. (2007) ‘Any Ideas? Think Tanks and Policy Analysis in Canada’ in DobuzinskisL.LaycockD. and HowlettM. (eds) Policy Analysis in Canada: The State of the ArtUniversity of Toronto PressToronto551573.

AbelsonD. (2009a) ‘Do Think Tanks Matter? Opportunities, Constraints and Incentives for Think Tanks in Canada and the United States’Global Society14(2) 213236.

AbelsonD. (2009b) Do Think Tanks Matter: Assessing the Impact of Public Policy Institutes2nd ednMcGill-Queen’s University PressMontreal.

AbelsonD. (2014) ‘Old World, New World: The Evolution and Influence of Foreign Affairs Think-Tanks’International Affairs90(1) 125142.

Abelson D. and Lindquist E. (2000) ‘Think tanks in North America’ in McGannJ. and WeaverK. (eds.) Think Tanks and Civil Societies: Catalysts for Ideas and ActionTransaction PublishersNew Brunswick, NJ3766

Adler-NissenR. (2016) ‘Diplomatic Agency’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon92103.

afp (2016) ‘Rohingya insurgency a “game-changer” for Myanmar: ICG’15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://au.news.yahoo.com/world/a/33572695/rohingya-insurgency-a-game-changer-for-myanmar/#page1.

AggestamK. (2016) ‘Diplomatic Mediation’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon220230.

AgrawalN. (2017) ‘They’ve been persecuted by the government for years. Now, some of Myanmar’s Rohingya are taking up arms’Los Angeles Times4 January 2017last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.latimes.com/world/asia/la-fg-rohingya-myanmar-armed-group-20170104-story.html.

Al Jazeera (2016a) ‘South China Sea: Weapons systems installed on islands’15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/12/south-china-sea-weapons-systems-installed-islands-161214210323393.html.

Al Jazeera (2016b) ‘Evacuation of east Aleppo under way during ceasefire’16 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/12/east-aleppo-civilians-trapped-uncertain-ceasefire-161215034620364.html.

AmbrusM.ArtsK.HeyE. and RaulusH. (2014) ‘The Role of “Experts” in International and European Decision-Making Processes: Setting the Scene’ in M. AmbrusK. ArtsE. Hey and H. Raulus (eds) The Role of Experts in International and European Decision-Making ProcessesCambridge University PressCambridge116.

AndersonM. (1993) The Rise of Modern Diplomacy 1450–1919LongmanLondon.

ArbourL. (2009) ‘Civil Society and Public Interest Diplomacy’Address by Louise Arbour President and CEO of the International Crisis Group to Georgetown University at the 28th Annual Trainor Award for Distinction in the Conduct of DiplomacyWashington, D.C.30 September.

AslanovE. (2010) ‘Bringing the best brains together’Trend News1 June. Available online: http://en.trend.az/azerbaijan/politics/1697270.html.

AveyP. and DeschM. (2014) ‘What Do Policymakers Want From Us? Results of a Survey of Current and Former Senior National Security Decision Makers’International Studies Quarterly58(2) 227246.

BailesA.DinesenR.HaukkalaH.JoenniemiP. and De SpiegeleureS. (2011) ‘The Academia and Foreign Policy Making: Bridging the Gap’Danish Institute for International Studies DIIS Working Paper No. 5152.

bbc (2016) ‘South China Sea: Satellite photos ‘show weapons’ built on islands’15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-38319253

BerridgeG. and LloydL. (2012) The Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Diplomacy (Third Edition) Palgrave Macmillan.

BjolaC. and HolmesS. (2015) Digital Diplomacy: Theory and PracticeRoutledge New Diplomacy Studies.

BjolaC. and MurrayS. (2016) Secret Diplomacy: Concepts Contexts and CasesRoutledge New Diplomacy Studies.

BlackJ. (2011) A History of DiplomacyReaktion BooksLondon.

BlackE. (2016) ‘Could Myanmar’s Rakhine State become the next ISIS recruiting ground?’Southeast Asia Globe15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://sea-globe.com/rakhine-state-radicalisation/.

BlandB. (2016) ‘Beijing installs ‘defence’ systems on South China Sea islands’Financial Times15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.ft.com/content/3575cd8c-c27d-11e6-81c2-f57d90f6741a.

BrunnstromD. (2016) ‘China installs weapons systems on artificial islands: U.S. think tank’Reuters15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.reuters.com/article/us-southchinasea-china-arms-exclusive-idUSKBN1431OK.

BullH. (2002) The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics3rd ednPalgraveNew York156177.

BisleyN. and TaylorB. (2015) “China’s Engagement with Regional Security Multilateralism: The Case of the Shangri-La Dialogue,” Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs37(1) 2948.

BymanD. and KroenigM. (2016) ‘Reaching Beyond the Ivory Tower: A How To Manual’Security Studies25(2) 289319.

ByrneC.Conley TylerM. and RimmerS. (2016) ‘Introduction: Australian Diplomacy Today’Australian Journal of International Affairs70(6) 581589.

Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (chsrf) (2003) ‘The Theory and Practice of Knowledge Brokering in Canada’s Health System’Canadian Health Services Research FoundationOttawa. Available online: www.chsrf.ca/brokering/pdf/Theory_and_Practice_e.pdf.

CapieD. (2010) ‘When Does Track Two Matter? Structure, Agency and Asian Regionalism. Review of International Political Economy17(2) 291318.

CapieD. and TaylorB. (2010) ‘The Shangri-La Dialogue and the Institutionalisation of Defence Diplomacy in Asia’The Pacific Review23(3) 359376.

CassauwersT. (2016) ‘Interview—Carne Ross’E-International Relations24 Novemberlast accessed 10 February 2017http://www.e-ir.info/2016/11/24/interview-carne-ross/.

Center for Strategic and International Studies (2016) Asia Maritime Transparency Initiativelast accessed 18 February 2017https://amti.csis.org/.

ChemarapallyY. (2016) ‘Another Self Goal: Modi Government and China’Peoples DemocracyXL(45) 6 November. Available online: http://peoplesdemocracy.in/2016/0605_pd/another-self-goal-modi-government-and-china.

Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (2015) Think Tank Evaluation Report Chinese Evaluation Centre for Humanities and Social SciencesBeijing. Available online: http://lyd.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/CASS_Global-think-tank-evaluation-report-1.pdf.

Chinese Association for International Understanding (2009) ‘Work Report of the 10th Council Meeting of CAFIU’last accessed 15 October 2016www.cafiu.org.cn/english/NewsInfo.asp?NewsId=1991.

Chinese Association for International Understanding (2014) ‘Constitution of the Chinese Association of International Understanding’Approved by the Plenary Session of the Eleventh Executive Council2 April. Available online: www.cafiu.org.cn/english/Column.asp?ColumnId=22.

Chinese Association for International Understanding (2017) CAFIU Websitelast accessed 20 February 2017http://www.cafiu.org.cn/english/Column.asp?ColumnId=14

ChipmanJ. (2007) ‘Interview with IISS CEO Chipman’conducted by Roy Mathew8 Decemberhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WMrdFgaMpg.

ChipmanJ. (2016a) ‘The IISS Drives Strategic Thought and Action’31 MayThe International Institute for Strategic Studieshttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bkBGgfrpQls.

ChipmanJ. (2016b) ‘The 15th IISS Shangri-La Dialogue Comes to a Close’The International Institute for Strategic Studies5 Junelast accessed 12 February 2017https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_rOxo2JzYQ.

Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Affairs (2016) Clingendael Annual Report 2015The Hague168. Available online: www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/Clingendael%20Annual%20Report%202015.pdf.

Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Affairs (2017) Clingendael Netherlands Institute of International Affairs websitelast accessed 20 February 2017https://www.clingendael.nl/about-us.

CochraneL. (2016) ‘ASEAN meeting on Rohingya ‘genocide’ ends with humanitarian access promise’ABC News20 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-20/asean-meeting-on-rohingyas-secures-humanitarian-access-promise/8133666.

CohenR. (2013) ‘Diplomacy Through the Ages’ in KerrP. and WisemanG. (eds) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and PracticeOxford University PressNew York1530.

Conley TylerM. (2015a) ‘The Role of Think Tanks in a Fragmenting Global System’The Interpreter14 Januarylast accessed 13 April 2016www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2015/01/14/The-role-of-think-tanks-in-a-fracturing-global-system.aspx.

Conley TylerM (2015b) ‘Think Tanks Need Integrity, Not Independence’The Drum1 Octoberlast accessed 13 April 2016www.abc.net.au/news/2015-10-01/conley-tyler-think-tanks-need-integrity-not-independence/68167422.

Conley TylerM (2015c) ‘Scholars, Policymakers and International Affairs: Finding Common Cause’Australian Journal of International AffairsAustralian Outlook Reading Room12 May 2014last accessed 13 April 2016www.internationalaffairs.org.au/australian_outlook/scholars-policymakers-and-international-affairs-finding-common-cause/.

Conley TylerM. (2016) “Diversity and Diplomacy”Australian Journal of International Affairs2016vol. 70issue 6695709.

Conley TylerM. and BeyerinckC. (2016) ‘Citizen Diplomacy’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon521529.

Conley TylerM.BlizzardE. and CraneB. (2014) ‘Is International Affairs Too ‘Hard’ for Women? Explaining the Missing Women in Australia’s International Affairs’Australian Journal of International Affairsvol. 28issue 2.

Conley TylerM.MatthewsR. and DietrichC. (2017) “Think Tanks as Knowledge Brokers” in The Age of Connectivity: ASEM and BeyondKonrad Adenaeur FoundationSingaporein press.

Conley TylerM. and RamasubramanianG. (2015) ‘Diplomacy Goes Personal: Public Diplomacy and Educational and Cultural Exchange’Proceedings of the 2013 Fulbright SymposiumAustralian American Fulbright CommissionCanberraISBN 978-970-646-92661-2. Available online: www.fulbright.com.au/images/files/publications/Proceedings_13.pdf.

CooperA. and HockingB. (2000) ‘Governments, Non-governmental Organisations and the Re-Calibration of Diplomacy’Global Society14(3) 361376.

CooperA. (2015) Diplomatic AfterlivesPolity PressCambridge, UK.

CooperA. and FrechetteL. (2008) Celebrity DiplomacyParadigm Publishers/Routledge.

CopelandD. (2009) Guerrilla Diplomacy: Rethinking International RelationsLynne Rienner PublishersBoulder CO.

CoxR. (1981) ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’Millennium: Journal of International Studies10(2) 126155.

CreemersR. (ed) (2015) CCP General Office and State Council General Office Opinions concerning Strengthening the Construction of New Types of Think Tanks with Chinese Characteristics China Copyright and MediaJanuary 20last accessed 15 October 2016www.chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com/2015/01/20/ccp-general-office-and-state-council-general-office-opinions-concerning-strengthening-the-construction-of-new-types-of-think-tanks-with-chinese-characteristics/.

DavisJ.H. and LiptonE. (2016) ‘Bob Dole Worked Behind the Scenes on Trump-Taiwan Call’The New York Times6 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/06/us/politics/bob-dole-taiwan-lobby-trump.html?_r=0.

Del RossoS. (2015) ‘Our New Three Rs: Rigor, Relevance, and Readability’Governance: An International Journal of Policy Administration and Institutions28(2) 127130.

DeskerB. (2010) ‘CSCAP: Shaping the Future of the Asian Regional Forum’ in D. Ball and K. Guan (eds) Assessing Track 2 Diplomacy in the Asia-Pacific RegionNanyang Technological UniversitySingapore227239. Available online: http://www.cscap.org/uploads/docs/CSCAP%20Reader/Assessing_Track-2-Diplomacy_Asia-Pac-Region_CSCAP-Reader.pdf.

D’HoogheI. (2007) ‘The Rise of China’s Public Diplomacy’Clingendael Diplomacy Papersno. 12Netherlands Institute of International RelationsThe Hague338.

D’HoogheI. (2010) ‘The Limits of China’s Soft Power in Europe: Beijing’s Public Diplomacy Puzzle’Clingendael Diplomacy Papersno. 25Netherlands Institute of International RelationsThe Hague137.

DobellG. (2016) ‘China Rumbles in the South China Sea’Australian Outlook9 Junelast accessed 16 November 2016http://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/australian_outlook/china-rumbles-in-the-south-china-sea/.

DomonoskeC. and KatkovM. (2016) ‘Evacuation Of Aleppo Underway As Second Cease-Fire Takes Hold’NPR15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/12/15/505659925/evacuation-of-aleppo-underway-as-ceasefire-takes-hold.

DormanS. (2011) Inside a U.S. Embassy: Diplomacy at WorkThird EditionPotomac Books and American Foreign Service Association.

DreznerD. (2014) ‘Why I’m Not Freaking Out Too Much About the Foreign Funding of American Think Tanks’The Washington Post8 Septemberlast accessed 15 January 2017https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/09/08/why-im-not-freaking-out-too-much-about-the-foreign-funding-of-american-think-tanks/?utm_term=.44b85092fc5a.

DreznerD. (2016) ‘What Do We Know About the Independence Of Think Tank Research That We Didn’t a Week Ago?’ The Washington Post10 Augustlast accessed 15 January 2017https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2016/08/10/what-do-we-know-about-the-independence-of-think-tank-research-that-we-didnt-a-week-ago/?utm_term=.ce054d6bf56f.

EnglishJ. (2013) ‘The Ottawa Convention on Anti-Personnel Landmines’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford797809.

European Council (2016) ‘European Council 15/12/2016’15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/meetings/european-council/2016/12/15/.

EvansG. (2004) ‘Conflict Prevention and Resolution: The Role of the International Crisis Group’Address by Gareth Evans President of International Crisis Group and Foreign Minister of Australia 1988–1996 to New Zealand Institute of International Affairs31 AugustWellingtonlast access 12 February 2017http://www.gevans.org/speeches.html.

EvansG. (2012) ‘The International Crisis Group: The Role of a Global NGO in Preventing and Resolving Deadly Conflict’presentation as part of the SSPS Centre for Public Policy Challenging Crises Series17 MayThe University of Melbourne.

EvansG. (2016) ‘The Role of International NGOs: The International Crisis Group as a Case Study’Presentation to the Whitlam Institute/Western Sydney University Law School Conference, The Architecture of Transnational Governance: The Role of Non-State Actors23 October 2015Western Sydney UniversitySydney.

Fielding-SmithA. (2014) ‘A start-up amid Syria’s civil war’Financial Times2 January 2014last accessed 18 February 2017https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:sN4_4KzR4XUJ:https://www.ft.com/content/03bd04b0-5eb5-11e3-a44c-00144feabdc0+&cd=5&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=au.

FormanS. and SegaarD. (2006) ‘New Coalitions for Global Governance: The Changing Dynamics of Multilateralism’Global Governance12(2) 205225.

ForsytheD.P. (2013) ‘Human Rights’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford658674.

FrechetteL. (2013) ‘Foreword—Diplomacy: Old Trade, New Challenges’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxfordxxxxxxv.

French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development (2017) ‘Protecting Interests’France Diplomatielast accessed 18 February 2017: http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/the-ministry-of-foreign-affairs/external-activities/article/protecting-interests.

Fundação Getulio Vargas (2010) Biofuel Production in the Republic of Senegal: Stage 1 Feasibility Study. Summary of the Final Report of Stage 1November 2010last accessed 20 February 2017http://fgvprojetos.fgv.br/publicacao/producao-de-biocombustiveis-na-republica-do-senegal.

Fundação Getulio Vargas (2015) FGV Annual Report 2015Rio Di Janeiro11115. Available online: http://portal.fgv.br/sites/default/files/fgv_-_annual_report_2015.pdf.

Fundação Getulio Vargas (2017) FGV Websitelast accessed 20 February 2017http://portal.fgv.br/en/mission.

GlaserB. (2015) ‘China’s Missed Opportunity at the Shangri-la Dialogue’31 Maylast accessed 18 October 2016www.amti.csis.org/chinas-missed-opportunity-at-the-shangri-la-dialogue/.

GregoryB. (2014) The Paradox of US Public Diplomacy: Its Rise and “Demise”The Institute for Public Diplomacy and Global Communication Report no. 1The George Washington University126.

GoldbergS. (2012) Leak Exposes How Heartland Institute Works to Undermine Climate Science’The Guardian15 Februarylast viewed 1 February 2017https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2012/feb/15/leak-exposes-heartland-institute-climate.

GoneshA. and MelissenJ. (2005) ‘Public Diplomacy: Improving Practice’Clingendael Diplomacy Papersno. 5Netherlands Institute of International RelationsThe Hague124.

Gould-DaviesN. (2010) ‘The Two Worlds of International Relations: Scholars, Practitioners, and Diplomacy’Paper prepared for the 51st Annual Convention of the International Studies AssociationNew Orleans17–20 February. Available online at: http://citation.allacademic.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/4/1/3/8/3/pages413835/p413835-1.php).

GrayR. (2013) ‘How Carne Ross Created a New Kind of Diplomacy’Buzzfeed News10 Julylast accessed 10 February 2017https://www.buzzfeed.com/rosiegray/how-carne-ross-created-a-new-kind-of-diplomacy?utm_term=.ix68AGZyDa#.jr8XJRq5yV.

GregoryB. (2015) ‘Mapping Boundaries in Diplomacy’s Public Dimension’The Hague Journal of Diplomacy2015125.

GrotiusH. (2012) ‘Hugo Grotius on the Law of War and Peace’Stephen C. Neff (eds) Cambridge University PressCambridge.

GutbrodH. (2016) ‘Transparency as a One Way Street’ in How Transparent are Think Tanks about Who Funds Them 2016?’Transparify29 June124.

GyngellA. (2008) ‘Think Tanks and Foreign Policy’PerspectivesLowy Institute for International PolicySydney111.

HackwillR. (2016) ‘Rohingya fighters in Myanmar linked to Saudi Arabia and Pakistan reports ICG’Euronews15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.euronews.com/2016/12/14/rohingya-fighters-in-myanmar-linked-to-saudi-arabia-and-pakistan-reports-icg.

HallI. (2010) ‘The transformation of diplomacy: mysteries, insurgencies and public relations’International AffairsVol. 86Issue 1 pp. 247256.

HallI. (2012) ‘India’s New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power and the Limits of Government Action’Asian Surveyvol. 42issue 6 pp. 10891110.

HargadonA. (1998) ‘Firms as Knowledge Brokers: Lessons in Pursuing Continuous Innovation’California Management Review40(3) 209227.

HeineJ. (2008) ‘On the Manner of Practising the New Diplomacy’ in A. CooperB. Hocking and W. Maley (eds) Global Governance and Diplomacy: World Apart?Palgrave MacmillanLondon271287.

HeineJ. (2013) ‘From Club to Network Diplomacy’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur(eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford5569.

HiggottR. and StoneD. (1994) ‘The limits of Influence: Foreign Policy Think Tanks in Britain and the USA’Review of International Studies20(1) 1534.

HochstetlerK. (2013) ‘Civil Society’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford176191.

HockingB. (1999) ‘Catalytic Diplomacy: Beyond “Newness” and “Decline” ’ in J. Melissen (ed) Innovation in Diplomatic PracticeMacmillan Press Ltd.London2142.

HockingB. (2004) ‘Privatizing diplomacy?’International Studies Perspectives5(2) 147152.

HockingB.MelissenJ.RiordanS. and SharpP. (2012) Futures for Diplomacy. Integrative Diplomacy in the 21st CenturyReport no. 1Netherlands Institute of International AffairsThe Hague179.

HockingB.MelissenJ.RiordanS.SharpP. (2013) ‘Whither Foreign Ministries in a Post-Western World?’Clingendael Policy Briefno. 20Netherlands Institute of International AffairsThe Hague17.

HuZ. and ZhangY. (2016) ‘China and the World in the Perspective of Global New Public Diplomacy’International Understanding23(1) 1217.

HuijghE. (2016) ‘Public Diplomacy’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon437450.

HuntK. (2016) ‘China installs weapons on contested South China Sea islands, report says’CNN15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://edition.cnn.com/2016/12/14/asia/south-china-sea-artificial-islands-spratlys-weapon-systems/.

HwaiL. (2016) ‘5 highlights of Shangri-La Dialogue 2016’Straits Times6 Junelast accessed 18 October 2016http://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/5-highlights-of-shangri-la-dialogue-2016.

Independent Diplomat (2016) idNarrative Overview provided to authors by Independent Diplomat staff member Thom Woodroofe

Independent Diplomat (2017) Independent Diplomat websitelast accessed 20 February 2017https://independentdiplomat.org/.

International Crisis Group (2010) Fifteen Years on the Front Lines156. Available online: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/fifteen-years-on-the-frontline.pdf.

International Crisis Group (2011) ‘About Crisis Group’Youtube video uploaded 7 Decemberlast accessed 12 February 2017https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OIlcZWlqj30.

International Crisis Group (2014) 2014 Annual Report123. Available online: https://d2071andvip0wj.cloudfront.net/annual-report-2014.pdf.

International Crisis Group (2016a) Myanmar: A New Muslim Insurgency in Rakhine StateReport 28315 Decemberlast accessed 18 February 2017https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/283-myanmar-new-muslim-insurgency-rakhine-state.

International Crisis Group (2016b) ‘WSJ: Asia’s New Insurgency’Impact Note21 Decemberlast accessed 2 February 2017https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/asias-new-insurgency.

International Crisis Group (2017) International Crisis Group websitelast accessed 20 February 2017https://www.crisisgroup.org/.

International Institute for Strategic Studies (2008) The Shangri-La Dialogue 2008 ReportThe 7th IISS Asia Security Summit 30 May–1 June 2008 SingaporeInternational Institute for Strategic StudiesLondon

International Institute for Strategic Studies (2016) The Leading Authority in Global Strategic Debate: Annual Review 2015–2016last accessed 18 October 2016www.iissreview.org/.

International Institute for Strategic Studies (2017) IISS websitelast accessed 20 February 2017https://www.iiss.org/.

JacobsM. (2016) ‘High pressure for low emissions: How civil society created the Paris climate agreement’IPPR Juncture14 March 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.ippr.org/juncture/high-pressure-for-low-emissions-how-civil-society-created-the-paris-climate-agreement.

JayaramD. (2012) “Breaking Out of the Greenhouse: Indian Leadership in Times of Environmental Change” in FratantuonoM.J.SarconeD.M. and ColwellJ. Jr. (eds.) The U.S.-India Relationship: Cross-Sector Collaboration to Promote Sustainable DevelopmentStrategic Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press.

JianN. (2016) ‘Ideas on Promoting International Understanding’Chinese Association for International Understandinglast accessed 15 October 2016http://www.cafiu.org.cn/english/NewsInfo.asp?NewsId=2581.

JohnstonT. and NeelakantanA. (2016) ‘The World’s Newest Muslim Insurgency is Being Waged in Burma’TIME Magazine15 Decemberlast accessed 2 February 2017http://time.com/4601203/burma-myanmar-muslim-insurgency-rohingya/.

JonesP. (2015) Track Two Diplomacy In Theory and PracticeStanford University PressStanford CA.

JönssonC. and HallM. (2005) ‘The Study of Diplomacy’Essence of DiplomacyPalgrave MacmillanLondon723.

JönssonC. and AggestamK. (2013) ‘Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution’ in J. BercovitchV. Kremenyuk and W. Zartman (eds) The SAGE Handbook of Confict ResolutionSAGE PublicationsLondon3351.

JunqiY. (2014) ‘Speech Presented at the 11th Executive Council Meeting of CAFIU’last accessed 15 October 2016www.cafiu.org.cn/english/NewsInfo.asp?NewsId=1993.

KantarS. (2017) ‘The Rohingya Displacement Crisis That Myanmar Denies Exists’News Deeply23 January 2017last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/articles/2017/01/23/the-rohingya-displacement-crisis-that-myanmar-denies-exists.

KeckM. and SikkinkK. (1999) ‘Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics’International Social Science Journal51(159) 89101.

KelleyJ. (2010) ‘The New Diplomacy: Evolution of a Revolution’Diplomacy and Statecraft21(2) 286305.

KerrP. and WisemanG. (2013) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and PracticeOxford University PressNew York.

KerrP. and TaylorB. (2013) “Track-Two Diplomacy in East Asia” in KerrP. and WisemanG. (eds) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and PracticeOxford University PressNew York.

KhannaP. (2011) ‘The New World Order … Really: Mega-Diplomacy’European View 10(2) 153158.

KimS. (2012) ‘Diplomatic Academy Prepares for New Ear’Korea JoongAng Daily25 Aprillast access 28 October 2016www.koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2951968.

KimS. (2013) ‘Diplomatic Academy Looks to the Future, Celebrates Its Past’Korea JoongAng Daily23 Octoberlast access 17 October 2016www.koreajoongangdaily.joins.com/news/article/article.aspx?aid=2979238.

KissingerH. (1994) DiplomacyTouchstoneNew York.

KohT.NorT.SuyantoD. and FallonW. (2006) ‘Advance Maritime Security Cooperation’The 5th Anniversary IISS Asia Security Summit 2–4 June 2006 SingaporeInternational Institute for Strategic StudiesLondon5864. Available online: https://www.iiss.org/-/media//silos/shangrila/2006/the-shangri-la-dialogue-2006/05-chapter-5/05-chapter-5.pdf.

KohlenbergK. (2015) ‘I Was Part of It’Die ZeitNo. 5223 Decemberlast accessed 10 February 2017https://independentdiplomat.org/die-zeit-i-was-part-of-it/.

KoppH.W. and GillespieC.J. (2011) Career Diplomacy: Life and Work in the U.S. Foreign ServiceSecond EditionGeorgetown University Press.

Korea Foundation (2016) Interview with Dr. Jan Melissen, Senior Research Fellow at the Clingendael InstituteNewsletterAprillast accessed 12 February 2017http://enewsletter.kf.or.kr/?menuno=4165.

Korea National Diplomatic Training Academy (2015) Korea National Diplomatic Training Academy websitelast accessed 21 December 2016http://www.knda.go.kr/knda/hmpg/eng/main/HmpgEngMain.do.

KraftH. (2000) ‘The Autonomy Dilemma of Track Two Diplomacy in Southeast Asia’Security Dialogue31(3) 343356.

KrishnaN. 2014‘Think Tank Effectiveness—An Outsider View’On Think Tanks1 Novemberlast accessed 30 January 2017https://onthinktanks.org/articles/think-tank-effectiveness-an-outsider-view/.

Kyung-eunJ. (2015) ‘Korean National Diplomatic Academy’The Keimyung Gazette15 Aprillast access 17 October 2016http://gazette.gokmu.com/news/article.html?no=2421.

LadekS. (2015) ‘Independent Diplomacy With Carne Ross’Terms of ReferenceNo. 5312 Januarylast accessed 10 February 2017http://aidpreneur.com/podcast-tor053-interview-with-carne-ross/.

LanghorneR. (2005) ‘The Diplomacy of Non-state Actors’Diplomacy and Statecraft16(2) 331339.

Leguey-FeilleuxJ. (2009) The Dynamics of DiplomacyLynne RiennerBoulder CO.

LeiraH. (2016) ‘A Conceptual History of Diplomacy’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon1327.

LewisS. (2016) ‘Myanmar’s Rohingya insurgency has links to Saudi, Pakistan—report’Reuters16 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.reuters.com/article/us-myanmar-rohingya-idUSKBN1450Y7.

LinklaterA. (1992) ‘The Question of the Next Stage in International Relations Theory: A Critical Theoretical Point of View’Millennium: Journal of International Studies21(1) 7798.

LiptonE. and WilliamsB. (2016) ‘How Think Tanks Amplify Corporate America’s Influence’The New York Times7 Augustlast accessed 15 January 2017https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/08/us/politics/think-tanks-research-and-corporate-lobbying.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=first-column-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news.

LiptonE.ConfessoreN. and WilliamsB. (2016) ‘Think Tank Scholar or Corporate Consultant? It Depends on the Day’The New York Times8 Augustlast accessed 15 January 2017https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/09/us/politics/think-tank-scholars-corporate-consultants.html.

LonghiniA. (2015) ‘Institutionalization of Foreign Policy Think Tanks in Italy and in the UK: An Explanatory Framework’Central European Journal of Public Policy9(2) 96120.

Lourdes VirayP. (2016) ‘Satellite photos show China weapons in South China Sea’The Philippines Star15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2016/12/15/1653717/satellite-photos-show-china-weapons-south-china-sea.

LowenthalA. and BertucciM. (eds) (2014) Scholars Policymakers and International Affairs: Finding Common CauseJohns Hopkins PressBaltimore.

McGannJ. (2007) Think Tanks and Policy Advice in the United States: Academics Advisors and AdvocatesRoutledgeAbingdon.

McGannJ. (2016) 2015 Global Go To Think Tank Index ReportThink Tanks and Civil Societies ProgramUniversity of PennsylvaniaPaper 10. Available at: www.repository.upenn.edu/think_tanks/10/?utm_source=repository.upenn.edu%2Fthink_tanks%2F10&utm_medium=PDF&utm_campaign=PDFCoverPages.

McGannJ. (2017) 2016 Global Go To Think Tank Index ReportThink Tanks and Civil Societies ProgramUniversity of Pennsylvania26 January 2017last accessed 20 February 2017http://repository.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=think_tanks.

McKinley CorboI. (2017) ‘Devastating Cruelty’Vice News7 February 2017last accessed 18 February 2017https://news.vice.com/story/myanmars-brutal-treatment-of-rohingya-muslims-back-in-spotlight-after-two-damning-new-reports.

MaloneD. (2013) ‘The Modern Diplomatic Mission’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford122141.

ManfrediJ.L. (2014) ‘Los cuatro idiomas del think tank’Real Instituto Elcano24 September 2014http://www.blog.rielcano.org/los-cuatro-idiomasdel-think-tank/ cited in Manfredi-Sanchez J. Sanchez-Giménez J. and Pizarro-Miranda J. (2015) ‘Structural Analysis to Measure the Influence of Think Tank Networks in the Digital Age’ The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 10(4) 363–395.

Medecins Sans Frontieres (2017) ‘We Speak Out’last accessed 20 February 2017https://www.msf.org.uk/advocacy-and-temoignage.

MedvetzT. (2008) Think Tanks as an Emergent FieldThe Social Science Research Council. New York110.

MelissenJ. (2013a) ‘Public Diplomacy’ in P. Kerr and G. Wiseman (eds) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and PracticesOxford University PressNew York: 192208.

MelissenJ. (2013b) ‘Public Diplomacy’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford436452.

MendizabalE. (2011) ‘Think Tanks: Research Findings and Some Common Challenges’On Think Tanks2 Junelast accessed 30 January 2017https://onthinktanks.org/articles/think-tanks-research-findings-and-some-common-challenges/.

MendizabalE. (2014) ‘What is a Think Tank? Defining the Boundaries of the Label’On Think Tanks22 Octoberlast accessed 30 January 2017https://onthinktanks.org/articles/what-is-a-think-tank-defining-the-boundaries-of-the-label/.

MonibotG. (2013) ‘Heard a Think Tank on the BBC? You Haven’t Hear the Whole Story’The Guardian30 Novemberlast viewed 1 February 2017https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/29/thinktank-bbc-smoking-big-tobacco.

MontvilleJ. (1991) ‘Transnationalism and the Role of Track-Two Diplomacy’ in W. Thompson and K. Jensen (eds.) Approaches to Peace: An Intellectual MapUnited States Institute of PeaceWashington DC255269.

MontvilleJ. (2009) ‘Track Two Diplomacy: The Work of Healing History’The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations7(2) 1525.

Morocco World News (2012) “Rabat hosts the First Meeting on Non-Governmental Diplomacy”21 July. Available online: https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2012/07/48915/rabat-hosts-the-first-meeting-on-non-governmental-diplomacy/.

MurdochL. (2016) ‘Myanmar Army accused of ethnic cleansing as Rohingya conflict escalates’The Sydney Morning Herald20 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.smh.com.au/world/myanmar-army-accused-of-ethnic-cleansing-as-rohingya-conflict-escalates-20161219-gte1b9.html.

NeumannI. (2008) ‘The Body of the Diplomat’European Journal of International Relations14(4) 671695.

NeumannI. (2012) At Home with the Diplomats: Inside a European Foreign MinistryCornell University PressIthaca.

OdoneC. (2012) ‘Can You Save Diplomacy From Itself’Foreign Policy26 Novemberlast accessed 10 February 2017http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/11/26/can-you-save-diplomacy-from-itself/.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) of the United Nations (2017) Report of OHCHR mission to Bangladesh: Interviews with Rohingyas fleeing from Myanmar since 9 October 2016Flash Report3 February 2017last access 18 Feb­ruary 2017http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/MM/FlashReport3Feb2017.pdf.

Okano-HeijmansM. (2013) ‘Consular Diplomacy’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford473492.

Okano-HeijmansM. (2016) ‘Economic Diplomacy’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon552563.

PageJ. (2016) ‘China Installs Weapons in South China Sea, Satellites Show’The Wall Street Journal15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-installs-weapons-in-south-china-sea-satellites-show-1481771066.

ParmarI. (2004) Think Tanks and Power in Foreign PolicyPalgrave MacmillanNew York.

PatilS. (2015) “China’s ‘think tank’ culture”Gateway House blog28 May. Available online: http://www.gatewayhouse.in/chinas-think-tank-culture/.

PhaswanaF. (2016) ‘2016 Address by SAIIA National Chairman, Mr Fred T Phaswana’South African Institute of International Affairs Cape Town18 Februarylast accessed 19 February 2017http://www.saiia.org.za/news/2016-address-by-saiia-national-chairman-mr-fred-t-phaswana.

PhillipsT. (2016a) ‘Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning in a South African Think Tank’On Think Tanks6 Octoberlast accessed 19 February 2017https://onthinktanks.org/articles/monitoring-evaluation-and-learning-in-a-south-african-think-tank/.

PhillipsT. (2016b) ‘Images show ‘significant’ Chinese weapons systems in South China Sea’The Guardian15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/15/images-show-significant-chinese-weapons-systems-in-south-china-sea.

PooleA. (2017) ‘UN report: Myanmar’s Rohingya Muslims face ongoing violence’World10 February 2017last accessed 18 February 2017https://world.wng.org/2017/02/un_report_myanmar_s_rohingya_muslims_face_ongoing_violence.

RanaK. (2011) 21st Century Diplomacy: A Practitioner’s GuideContinuumLondon.

RenaudF. (2011) Les DiplomatesNouveau MondeParis.

RichA. (2005) Think Tanks Public Policy and the Politics of ExpertiseCambridge University PressCambridge.

RinkeA. (2015) ‘Merkel suggests China resolve South China Sea row in courts’Reuters29 October 2015last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.reuters.com/article/southchinasea-china-germany-idUSL8N12T2WQ20151029.

RossA. (2015) ‘Twenty-first Century Statecraft’ in A. Sandre (ed) Digital Diplomacy: Conversations on Innovation in Foreign PolicyRowman and Littlefield PublishersMaryland316.

RossC. (2016) Crises in World Politics: Independent Diplomat: Dispatches from an Unaccountable EliteCornell University PressIthaca.

SandreA. (ed) (2015) Digital Diplomacy: Conversations on Innovation in Foreign PolicyRowman and Littlefield PublishersMaryland.

SchreerB. (2015) ‘China’s ‘great wall of sand’: calling a spade a spade’ASPI Strategist29 April 2015last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.aspistrategist.org.au/chinas-great-wall-of-sand-in-the-south-china-sea/.

SeibP. (2012) Real-Time Diplomacy; Politics and Power in the Social Media EraPalgrave MacmillanNew York.

SendingO.PouliotV. and NeumannI. (2011) ‘The Future of Diplomacy: Changing Practices, Evolving Relationships’International Journal66(3) 527542.

ShambaughD. (2002) ‘China’s International Relations Think Tanks’The China Quarterly171575596.

SharpP. (1997) ‘Who Needs Diplomats? The Problems of Diplomatic Representation’International Journal52(4): 609634.

ShergoldP (2005) ‘Book Launch at Annual Symposium’Dialogue [Academy of the Social Sciences]24(3) 13.

SmithJ. (1991) The Idea Brokers: Think Tanks and the Rise of the New Policy EliteThe Free PressNew York.

SoferS. (1988) ‘Old and New Diplomacy: A Debate Revisited’Review of International Studies14(3) 195211.

SongL. 2014‘China’s Public Diplomacy Toward Visegrad Countries: Beyond Economic Influence?’ in A. Szunomár (ed) Chinese Investments and Engagement in Visegrad Countries: Myth or Reality?Institute of World EconomicsBudapest108126. Available at: www.real.mtak.hu/18734/1/Chinese_investments_and_financial_engagement_in_Visegrad_countries_u_150652.439154.pdf#page=109.

South African Institute of International Affairs (2013) South African Institute of International Affairs Strategic Plan 2013–17last accessed 20 February 2017https://www.saiia.org.za/general-publications/515-saiia-strategic-plan-2013-2017/file.

South African Institute of International Affairs (2015) 2015 SAIIA Highlights Brochure. Available online at: http://www.saiia.org.za/general-publications/1082-saiia-highlights-2015/file.

South African Institute of International Affairs (2017) SAIIA websitelast accessed 20 February 2016http://www.saiia.org.za.

SteinJ. (ed) (2011) Diplomacy in the Digital Age: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Allan GotliebMcClelland and StewartToronto.

SteenJ. (2010) ‘What Motivates Knowledge Brokers’The Discipline of Innovation. Available at: http://timkastelle.org/blog/2010/04/what-motivates-knowledge-brokers/.

StoneD. (1996a) Capturing the Political Imagination: Think Tanks and the Policy ProcessFrank Cass and Co. LtdOxon.

StoneD. (1996b) ‘A Think Tank in Evolution or Decline? The Australian Institute of International Affairs in Comparative Perspective’Australian Journal of International Affairs50(2) 117136.

StoneD. (2000) ‘Private authority, scholarly legitimacy and political credibility: think tanks and informal diplomacy’ in HiggottR.UnderhillG. and BielerA. (eds.) Non-state Actors and Authority in the Global SystemRoutledgeLondon.

StoneD. (2005) ‘Think Tanks and Policy Advice in Countries in Transition’paper prepared for the Asian Development Bank Institute Symposium, “How to Strengthen Policy-Oriented Research and Training In Vietnam”31 AugustHanoi121.

StoneD. (2007) ‘Recycling Bins, Garbage Cans or Think Tanks?: Three Myths Regarding Policy Analysis Institutes’85(2) 259278.

StoneD.DenhamA. and GarnettM. (1998) Think Tanks Across Nations: a Comparative ApproachManchester University PressManchester.

StoneD. and DenhamA. (eds) (2004) Think Tank Traditions: Policy Research and the Politics of IdeasManchester University PressManchester.

ThakurR. (2013) ‘A Balance of Interests’ in A. CooperJ. Heine and R. Thakur (eds) Oxford Handbook of Modern DiplomacyOxford University PressOxford7090.

The New York Times (2016) ‘Dole’s Role in Trump-Taiwan Relationship’The New York Times6 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2016/12/06/us/politics/document-bob-dole-lobbying-documents.html.

TheobaldO. (2013) ‘Strengthening Australia-China Relations with Track II diplomacy’Emerging ScholarsThe Australian Institute of International AffairsCanberra6580.

TsaiC.H. (2012) ‘International Political Communication in Global Civil Society: A Case Study of Taiwan’s Participation in un Specialized Agencies’Prospect Journal111147.

Ukrainian Think Tank Liaison Office in Brussels (2016) “Bruegel Discussion: Why Think Tanks Matter to Policy Makers and the Public?”. Available online: https://ukraine-office.eu/en/bruegel-discussion-why-think-tanks-matter-to-policy-makers-and-the-public/.

Wall Street Journal (2016) ‘Asia’s New Insurgency’19 Decemberlast accessed 2 February 2017https://www.wsj.com/articles/asias-new-insurgency-1482192636.

WalshE. (2015) ‘Think Tank Diplomacy’The Diplomat7 September. Available at http://thediplomat.com/2011/09/think-tank-diplomacy/.

WangJ. (2011) ‘Introduction: China’s Search of Soft Power’ in J. Wang (ed) Soft Power in China: Public Diplomacy through CommunicationPalgrave MacmillanNew York118.

WangL.L. (2013) “Development of Think Tanks and Promotion of Public Diplomacy in China”. Available online: http://news.china.com.cn/world/2013-12/19/content_30948444_2.htm.

WedelJ. (2009) Shadow Elite: How the World’s New Power Brokers Undermine DemocracyBasic BooksPhiladelphia.

WedelJ. (2010) ‘Shadow Elite: How the Study of Post-Communist Societies Illuminates US Power Structures’Anthropology News51(2) 27.

WedelJ. (2011) ‘Beyond Conflict of Interests: Shadow Elites and the Challenge to Democracy and the Free Market’Polish Sociological Review174(2) 149165.

WeisbrodeK. (2014) ‘Creative Innovation in Diplomacy’Diplomatic CourierJanuary 9last accessed 4 May 2015www.diplomaticourier.com/2014/01/09/creative-innovation-in-diplomacy/.

WendtA. (1992) ‘Anarchy is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics’International Organisation46(2) 391425.

WendtA. (1995) ‘Constructing International Politics’International Security20(1) 7181.

WheelerM. (2016) ‘Celebrity Diplomacy’ in C. ConstantinouP. SharpP. Kerr (eds.) The SAGE Handbook of DiplomacySAGE PublicationsLondon530539.

WiardaH. (2014) ‘Think Tanks and Foreign Policy’ in On the Boundaries: When International Relations Comparative Politics and Foreign Policy MeetUniversity Press of America Inc.Maryland271299.

WisemanG. (1999) ‘“Polylateralism” and New Modes of Global Dialogue’Discussion Papers No. 59Leicester Diplomatic Studies ProgrammeLeicester3657.

WisemanG. (2005) ‘Pax Americana: Bumping into Diplomatic Culture’International Studies Perspectivesvolume 6issue 4409430.

WisemanG. (2010) ‘“Polylateralism”: Diplomacy’s Third Dimension”Public Diplomacy MagazineSummer 20102439.

WisemanG. (2011) ‘Distinctive Characteristics of American Diplomacy’The Hague Journal of Diplomacy2011volume 6235259.

WisemanG. and SharpP. (2017) ‘Diplomacy’ in DevetakR.PercyS and GeorgeJ. (eds.) An Introduction to International RelationsCambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

WoolcottR. (2007) Undiplomatic ActivitiesScribeMelbourne.

World Breaking News (2016) ‘Why is Aleppo being evacuated, how many children have been rescued, where is the Syrian city and why has it been bombed?’World Breaking News16 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017https://m.wbnews.info/2016/12/why-is-aleppo-being-evacuated-how-many-children-have-been-rescued-where-is-the-syrian-city-and-why-has-it-been-bombed/.

WrightO. (2016) ‘EU referendum: Think-tanks conducting ‘independent’ research to support Brexit have close links to Vote Leave’Independent24 February 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/eu-referendum-think-tanks-carrying-out-independent-research-to-support-brexit-have-close-links-to-a6866011.html.

WroeD. (2016) ‘Julie Bishop accuses China of fuelling ‘tension and mistrust’ by weaponising artificial islands’The Sydney Morning Herald15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-news/julie-bishop-accuses-china-of-fuelling-tension-and-mistrust-by-weaponising-artificial-islands-20161215-gtbruo.html.

Xinhua (2016) ‘China says deployment of defensive facilities on South China Sea islands legitimate’Xinhua15 December 2016last accessed 18 February 2017http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-12/15/c_135908576.htm.

YingX.P. (2015) “Development of Chinese think-tank and promoting the construction of national governance modernization”International Journal of Science Commerce and Humanities3(6) 1824.

YangA.H.ChenI.T.Y. and PoongH.L. (2015) “Reconfiguring Social Capital in the Making of Track II Diplomacy: A Case Study of the Taipei-Seoul Forum”Issues and Studies51(4) 143172.

ZhaoA.A.“Past Diplomacy in East Asia: From Tributary Relations to Cold War Rivalry” in KerrP. and WisemanG. (eds) Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and PracticeOxford University PressNew York3147.

Zheng L. (2016) ‘What is the Shangri-La Dialogue and Why Is It So Important?South China Morning Post3 Junelast accessed 17 October 2016http://www.scmp.com/news/china/diplomacy-defence/article/1963157/what-shangri-la-dialogue-and-why-it-so-important.

Figures

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 106 106 25
Full Text Views 132 132 87
PDF Downloads 15 15 5
EPUB Downloads 3 3 0