International Investment Law and Arbitration: History, Modern Practice, and Future Prospects

in Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



International Investment Law is one of the most dynamically growing fields of International Law as shown by the volume of Bilateral Investment Treaties (bits), and investment chapters in a growing numbers of regional and mega-regional trade agreements. This paper explores the origin, evolution and operation of International Investment Law. It discusses the main actors, the protections afforded to foreign investments and investors, and the content of modern bits. The legal issues and challenges International Investment Law faces today are brought into perspective. Particularly, this paper provides an assessment of the measures put forth by the European Union aimed at transforming the traditional investor-State arbitration system to an Investment Court System. An examination of the nafta re-negotiations is also presented, including the impact that ceta, a trade deal between the eu and Canada could have in the outcome of the current re-negotiations.

International Investment Law and Arbitration: History, Modern Practice, and Future Prospects

in Brill Research Perspectives in International Investment Law and Arbitration



AlvarezJose EnriqueThe Public International Law Regime Governing International Investment344 Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law 193 (2009).

AmerasingheChittharanjan FelixLocal Remedies in International Law (2nd ed. 2004).

BergstenEricAmericanization of International Arbitration18 Pace Int’l L. Rev. 289 (2006).

Bernasconi-OsterwalderNathalieThe Draft Investment Chapter of the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement: A Step Backwards for the EU and Canada?Investment Treaty News (June 262013).

BierbrauerElfriedeNegotiations on the eu-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (ceta) Concluded, Directorate-Gen. for External Policies, European Parliament (2014).

BirchNicholas J.LairdIanSabahiBorzuInternational Investment Law Regime and the Rule of Law as a Precondition for International Development in New Directions in International Economic Law (Todd Weiler & Freya Baetens eds. 2011).

BishopR. Doak & ReedLucyPractical Guidelines for Interviewing Selecting and Challenging Party-Appointed Arbitrators in International Commercial Arbitration14 Arb. Int’l 2 (1998).

BjörklundAndrea K.Investment Treaty Arbitral Decisions as Jurisprudence Constante in International Economic Law: The State and Future of the Discipline (Colin PickerIsabella Bunn & Douglas Arner eds. 2008).

BorchardEdwinthe Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad (1915).

BorchardEdwinMinimum Standard of Treatment of Aliens (1939) 33 ASIL Proc. 51.

BottiniGabrielReform of the Investor-State Arbitration Regime: The Appeal Proposalreshaping investor-state dispute settlement system journey for the 21st century (Jean E Kalicki and Anna Joubin-Bret eds. 2015).

BrochesAronDevelopment of International Law by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in Proceedings of ASIL 3381 (1965).

BrownChesterIntroduction: The Development and Importance of the Model Bilateral Investment Treaty in Commentaries on Selected Model Investment Treaties (Chester Brown ed. 2013).

BrownlieIanPrinciples of Public International Law (6th ed. 2003).

BusseMatthiasKönigerJens and NunnenkampPeterFDI promotion through bilateral investment treaties: more than a bit?Review of World Economics / Weltwirtschaftliches ArchivVol. 146No. 1 (April 2010).

ChengTai-HengPositivism, New Haven Jurisprudence, and the Fragmentation of International Law in New Directions in International Economic Law (Todd Weiler & Freya Baetens eds. 2011).

CommissionJeffery P.Precedent in Investment Treaty Arbitration: A Citation Analysis of a Developing Jurisprudence24 j. Int’l Arb. 129 (2007).

CrawfordJamesBrownlie’s Principles of Public International Law (8th ed. 2012).

CremadesBernardo M.Disputes Arising Out of Foreign Direct Investment in Latin America: A New Look at the Calvo Doctrine and Other Jurisdictional Issues59 Disp. Res. J. 78 (2004).

De MestralArmandPre-Entry Obligations under International Law in International Investment Law (BungenbergGriebelHobeReinisch eds. CH Beck Hart Nomos 2015).

De MestralArmandWhen Does the Exception Become the Rule? Conserving Regulatory Space under CETA18 J. Int’l Econ. L. 641 643 (2015).

DolzerRudolf & SchreuerChristophPrinciples of International Investment Law (2nd ed. 2012).

DolzerRudolf & StevensMargreteBilateral Investment Treaties 50 (1995).

DouglasZacharyThe Hybrid Foundations of Investment Treaty Arbitration74 Brit. Y.B. Int’l L. 151 (2003).

DuganChristopher f.WallaceDonRubinsNoah & SabahiBorzuInvestor-State Arbitration (Oxford UP 2008).

ElkinsZacharyet al.Competing for Capital: The Diffusion of Bilateral Investment Treaties 1960–20002008 u. Ill. L. Rev. 265 (2008).

FitchStephen D.The Harriman Manganese Concession in the Soviet Union: Lessons for Today9 Int’l Tax & Bus. L. 209 (1991).

García AmadorF.V.Fourth Report of the Special Rapporteur Responsibility of the State for Injuries Caused in its Territory to the Person or Property of Aliens—Measures Affecting Acquired Rights2 Y.B. Int’l L. Comm. 1 (United Nations 1959).

GardnerJohnLegal Positivism: 5 ½ Myths46 Am J. of Juris. 199 (2001).

GiorgettiChiaraBetween Legitimacy and Control: Challenges and Recusals of Judges and Arbitrators in International Courts and Tribunals49 Geo. Wash. Int’l L. Rev. 205 (2017).

GoebelJulius Jr.The International Responsibility of States for Injuries Sustained by Aliens on Account of Mob ViolenceInsurrections and Civil Wars8 Am. J. Int’l L. 802 (1914).

Gómez-PalacioIgnacio & MuchlinskiPeterAdmission and Establishment in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law (Peter MuchlinskiFederico Ortino & Christoph Schreuer eds. 2008).

Gonzalez GarciaLuisMaking Impossible Investor-State Reform Possiblereshaping investor-state dispute settlement system journey for the 21st century (Jean E Kalicki and Anna Joubin-Bret eds. 2015).

GordonK. & PohlJ.Investment Treaties over Time—Treaty Practice and Interpretation in a Changing World (oecd Publ’n Working Paper No. 22015).

Grierson-WeilerTodd J. & LairdIan A.Standards of Treatments in The Oxford Handbook in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law (Peter MuchlinskiFederico Ortino & Christoph Schreuer eds. 2008).

GudgeonK.United States Bilateral Investment Treaties: Comments on Their Origin Purposes and General Treatment Standards4 Int’l Tax & Bus. L. 105 (1986).

Gus VanHartenThe Public-Private Distinction in the International Arbitration of Individual Claims Against the State56 International & Comparative Law Quarterly (ICLQ) 371 (2007).

HackworthGreen H.3 Digest of International Law 655 (1942).

Harvard Law School Research in International LawThe Law of Responsibility of States for Damage Done in Their Territory to the Person or Property of Foreigners23 Am. J. Int’l L. Special Supp. 131 (1929).

HawkinsHarry C.Commercial Treaties and Agreements: Principles and Practice (New York: Rinehart & Company Inc.1951).

HoudeMarie-France & Yannaca-SmallK. Relationships between International Investment Agreements (oecd Publ’n Working Paper No. 1 2004).

HoudeMarie-FranceNovel Features in Recent OECD Bilateral Investment Treaties in International Investment Perspectives (2006).

JacksonJohn H.DaveyWilliam J. & SykesAlan O.Legal Problems of International Economic Relations (4th ed. 2001).

KahaleIIIGeorgeIs Investor-State Arbitration Broken? TDMOctober 2012.

KahnPhilip and WäldeThomasReport for the Hague Academy 2004 in connection with the program “New Aspects of International Investment Law / Les aspects nouveaux du droit des investissements internationaux” (Ph. Kahn and T. W. Wälde eds. 2004).

Kaufmann-KohlerGabrielleArbitral Precedent: Dream Necessity or Excuse?23 Arb. Int’l 357 (2007).

KingsburyBenedict & SchillStephanInvestor-State Arbitration as Governance: Fair and Equitable Treatment Proportionality and the Emerging Global Administrative Law (September 22009) nyu School of Law Public Law Research Paper No. 0946.

KjosHege ElisabethApplicable Law in Investor-State Arbitration: The Interplay between National and International Law (Oxford University Press2013).

KurtzJurgenA General Investment Agreement in the WTO—Lessons from Chapter 11 of NAFTA and the OECD Multilateral Agreement on Investment23 U. Pa. J. Int’l L. 756 (2002).

LairdIan & AskewRebeccaFinality Versus Consistency: Does Investor-State Arbitration Need an Appellate System7 J. App. Prac. & Process 285 (2005).

LammCarolyn B.GreenwaldBrody K. and YoungKristen M.From World Duty Free to Metal-Tech: A Review of International Investment Treaty Arbitration Cases Involving Allegations of Corruption29(2) ICSID Review 328 (2014).

LipsteinK.Conflict of Laws before International Tribunals29 transactions of the grotius society 51 (1944).

LlamzonAloysiusCorruption in International Investment Arbitration (Oxford 2014).

LowenfeldAdreas F.International Economic Law (2nd ed. 2008).

MackaayEjan History of Law and Economics in 1 Encyclopedia of Law and Economics 65 (Boudewijn Bouckaert & Gerrit De Geest eds. 2000).

Manning-CabrolDeniseThe Imminent Death of the Calvo Clause and the Rebirth of the Calvo Principle: Equality of Foreign and National Investors26 Law & Pol’y Int’l Bus. 1169 (1995).

MarboeIrmgard calculation of compensation and damages in international investment law (OUP Oxford2009).

McLachlanCampbellShoreLaurence & WeinigerMatthewInternational Investment Arbitration: Substantive Principles (Oxford University Press2007).

MitchellNancyThe Danger of Dreams: German and American Imperialism in Latin America (University of North Carolina Press1999).

MonagasYessikaU.S. Property in Jeopardy: Latin American Expropriations of U.S. Corporations’ Property Abroad34 Hous. J. Int’l L. 455 (2012).

MonttSantiagoState Liability in Investment Treaty Arbitration: Global Constitutional Law and Administrative Law In The BIT Generation (2009).

NafzigerWayne E.The Economics of Developing Countries (3rd ed. 1997).

NewcombeAndrew and ParadellLluísLaw and Practice of Investment Treaties: Standards of Treatment (Kluwer Law International 2009).

NussbaumArthurArbitration Between the Lena Goldfields Ltd. and the Soviet Government36 Cornell L. Rev. 31 (1950).

OppenheimLassaInternational Law: A Treatise 111 (4th Ed.1926).

ParlettKate The Individual in the International Legal System: Continuity and Change in International Law (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2011).

ParkEun YoungAppellate Review in Investor-State Arbitration reshaping investor-state dispute settlement system journey for the 21st century (Jean E Kalicki and Anna Joubin-Bret eds. 2015).

ParraAntonioThe History of ICSID (Oxford 2012).

PaulssonJanArbitration without PrivityICSID Review (1995).

PaulssonJanMoral Hazard in International Dispute ResolutionTDMJune 102010.

PauwelynJoostAt the Edge of Chaos? Foreign Investment Law as a Complex Adaptive System How It Emerged and How It Can Be Reformed29 ICSID Rev. 372 (2014).

RalstonJackson HarveyThe Law and Procedure of Tribunals Being a Résumé of the Views of Arbitrators Questions Arising under the Law of Nations (Stanford University Press rev. ed. 1926).

ReismanMichael W.The View from the New Haven School of International Law American Society of International LawProceedings of the Annual Meeting 118 (1992).

ReinischAugust & MalintoppiLorettaMethods of Dispute Resolution in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law (Peter MuchlinskiFederico Ortino & Christoph Schreuer eds. 2008).

ReismanMichael & ArsanjaniMahnoushInterpreting Treaties for the Benefit of Third Parties: The “Salvors Doctrine” and the Use of Legislative History in Investment Treaties104 Am. J. Int’l L. 597 (2010).

RipinskySergey and WilliamsKevin damages in international investment law (BIILC2008).

RobertsAntheaClash of Paradigms: Actors and Analogies Shaping the Investment Treaty System107 Am. J. Int’l L. 45 (2013).

RootElihuThe Basis of Protection to Citizens Residing Abroad4 Am. J. Int’l L. 517 (1910).

RothAndreas H.The minimum standard of international law applied to aliens (Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff1949).

SabahiBorzucompensation and restitution in investor-state arbitration: principles and practice (OUP Oxford2011).

SabahiBorzu & DuggalKabirPhilip Morris Brands Sarl v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay International Decisions108 Am. J. Int’l L. 67 (2014).

SchillStephan W.The Multilateralization of International Investment Law (Cambridge University Press2009).

SchreuerChristophConsent to Arbitration in The Oxford Handbook in The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law (Peter MuchlinskiFederico Ortino & Christoph Schreuer eds. 2008).

SchreuerChristophMalintoppiLorettaReinischAugust and SinclairAnthonyThe ICSID Convention: A Commentary (2nd ed.Cambridge2009).

SchwarzenbergerGeorgThe Abs-Shawcross Draft Convention on Investments Abroad: A Critical Commentary9 J. Pub. L. 147 (1960).

ShihataIbrahim F. I. MIGA and Foreign Investment (1988).

SikkinkKathrynReconceptualizing Sovereignty in the Americas: Historical Precursors and Current Practices19 Hous. J. Int’l L. 705 (1997).

SimmaBruno & PaulusAndreas L.Symposium on Method in International Law: The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist View93 Am. J. Int’l L. 302 (1999).

Skovgaard PoulsenLauge N. book review [Karl P. Sauvant and Lisa E. Sachs. (eds). The Effect of Treaties on Foreign Direct Investment: Bilateral Investment Treaties Double Taxation Treaties and Investment Flows.] Eur J Int Law (2009).

SlossDavidThe Domestication of International Human Rights: Non-Self-Executing Declarations and Human Rights Treaties24 Yale J. Int’l L. 129 (1999).

SornarajahM.Resistance and Change in the International Law of Foreign Investment (2015).

SourgensFrédéric G. a Nascent Common Law (Brill | Nijhoff2015).

SpiegelHans W.Origin and Development of Denial of Justice32 Am. J. Int’l L. 63 (1938).

SteingruberAndrea MarcoConsent in International Arbitration (Oxford 2012).

unctadNational Treatment in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II (1999).

unctadWorld Investment Report—Foreign direct investment and the challenge of development (1999).

unctadAdmission and Establishment in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements (2002).

unctadMost-Favoured Nation Treatment in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II (2010).

unctadFair and Equitable Treatment in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II (2012).

unctadExpropriation: A Sequel in UNCTAD Series on Issues in International Investment Agreements II (2012).

unctadReform of Investor-State Dispute Settlement in Search of a RoadmapIssue N. 3 (June 2013).

unctadWorld Investment Report—Reforming International Investment Governance (2015).

Van Haersolte-Van HofJacomijn J. & HoffmannAnne KThe Relationship Between International Tribunals and Domestic Courtsin The Oxford Handbook on International Investment Law (Peter MuchlinskiFederico Ortino & Christoph Schreuer eds. 2008).

VandeveldeKenneth J.The Bilateral Investment Treaty Program of the United States21 Cornell Int’l L.J. 201 (1988).

VandeveldeKenneth J. Reassessing the Hickenlooper Amendment29 Va. J. Int’l L. 115 (1988).

VandeveldeKenneth J.The Political Economy of a Bilateral Investment Treaty92 Am. J. Int’l L. 621 (1998).

VattelE. the Law of Nations or the Principles of Natural Law (Béla Kapossy & Richard Whatmore eds. 2008.

VeederV.V.The Lena Goldfields Arbitration: The Historical Roots Of Three Ideas47 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. 718 (1998).

VeselScottClearing A Path Through A Tangled Jurisprudence: Most-Favored-Nation Clauses and Dispute Settlement Provisions in Bilateral Investment Treaties32 Yale J. Int’l L. 125 (2007).

Waibelet al. (eds) The Backlash against Investment Arbitration: Perceptions and Reality (Kluwer Law2010).

Wälde ThomasInvestment Arbitration as a Discipline for Good Governance: Overview and Epilogue [Oil Gas & Energy Law]issue 22004.

WäldeThomas ‘The “Umbrella” Clause in Investment Arbitration: A Comment on Original Intentions and Recent Cases’6 J. World Investment & Trade 183 (2005).

Walker Jr.HermanModern Treaties of FriendshipCommerce and Navigation42 Minn. L. Rev. 805 (1958).

Wallace Jr.DonCase Study under nafta: Lessons for the Wise? in arbitrating foreign investment disputes: procedural and substantive legal aspects (Stefan Michael Kroll and Norbert Horn eds. Kluwer Law International 2004).

WallaceJr.DonFair and Equitable Treatment and Denial of Justice: Loewen v us and Chattin v Mexico in International Law and Arbitration: Leading Cases from the ICSID NAFTA Bilateral Treaties and Customary International Law (Todd Weiler ed. 2005).

WeilerToddInterpretation of International Investment Law (Martinus Nijhoff2013).

WilsonRobert R.United States Commercial Treaties and International Law (New Orleans: The Hauser Press1960).

WongJarrodUmbrella Clauses in Bilateral Investment Treaties: Of Breaches of Contract Treaty Violations and the Divide Between Developing and Developed Countries in Foreign Investment DisputesGeo. Mason L. Rev. 135 (2006).

YackeeJason W.Bilateral Investment Treaties Credible Commitment and the Rule of (International) Law: Do BITs Promote Foreign Direct Investment?42 Law & Society Review 805 (2008).

Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Uruguay icsid Case No. arb/10/7 Decision on Jurisdiction (July 2 2013).

aes Summit Generation Limited and aes-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary icsid Case No. arb/07/22 iic 455 (2010) Award (17 September 2010).

Alasdair Ross Anderson and Others v Costa Rica icsid Case No arb(af)/07/3 iic 437 Award (May 10th 2010).

Americas Inc. v. The United Mexican States icsid Case No. arb (af)/04/5 (Rovine Separate Opinion 20 September 2007).

Antoine Goetz and others v Republic of Burundiicsid Case No arb/01/2 Award (June 21 2012).

Aramco v. Saudi Arabia (1963) 27 i.l.r. 117.

Asian Agricultural Products Ltd. (aapl) v. Republic of Sri Lanka. Case No. arb/87/3 30 ilm 577 (1991).

Bayindir Insaat Turizm Ticaret Ve Sanayi A.S. v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan icsid Case No. arb/03/29 iic 27 (2005) Decision on Jurisdiction (November 14th 2005).

bp Exploration Co (Libya) Ltd. v. Government of the Libyan Arab Republic 53 ilr 297 (October 10 1973).

Burlington Resources Inc. v. Republic of Ecuador icsid Case No. arb/08/5 Decision on the Proposal for Disqualification of Professor Francisco Orrego Vicuña (13 De. 2013).

Burlington Resources Inc. v. Republic of Ecuador icsid Case No. arb/08/5 Decision on Ecuador’s Counterclaims (February 7th 2017).

cme Czech Republic B.V. v. The Czech Republic Ad hoc Tribunal (uncitral) Final award and separate opinion (March 14th 2003).

Government of the State of Kuwait v. The American Independent Oil Company (aminoil) 21 ilm 976 (March 24 1982).

Inceysa Vallisoletane sl v El Salvador Award icsid Case No arb/03/26 iic 134 Award (August 2 2006).

Inmaris Perestroika Sailing Maritime Services GmbH and others v Ukraine icsid Case No. arb/08/8 Award (Mar. 1 2012).

Lauder v. Czech Republic 9 icsid Rep. 62 (2001).

Libyan American Oil Company v Libyan Arab Republic 62 ilr 140 (April 12 1977).

Loewen Group Inc. v. United States of America icsid Case No. arb(af)/98/3 Award (June 26 2003).

Maffezini v. Spain icsid Case No. arb/97/7 (Jan. 25 2000) 5 icsid Rep. 396 (2002).

Methanex Corporation v. United States of America uncitral Award (August 3rd 2005).

Malaysian Historical Salvors v. Malaysia icsid Case No. arb/05/10 Decision on Application for Annulment (Apr. 16 2009).

mtd Equity Sdn. Bhd. and mtd Chile s.a. v. Republic of Chile icsid Case No. arb/01/7 iic 174 Award (May 25th 2004).

Neer v. United Mexican States 4 R. Int’l Arb. Awards 60 (Mex-u.s. Cl. Comm’n Oct. 15 1926).

Occidental Petroleum Corp and Occidental Exploration and Production Company v Republic of Ecuador icsid Case No. arb/06/11 Award (Oct. 5th 2012).

Perenco Ecuador Ltd. v. The Republic of Ecuador and Empresa Estatal Petróleos del Ecuador (Petroecuador) icsid Case No. arb/08/6 Interim Decision on the Environmental Counterclaim (August 11 2015).

Petroleum Development (Trucial Coast) Ltd. v. Sheikh of Abu Dhabi (1951) 18 i.l.r. 144 (1951) 18 I. L. R. 144.

Philip Morris Brands Sàrl Philip Morris Products s.a. and Abal Hermanos s.a. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay icsid Case No. arb/10/7 (2016).

Phoenix Action Ltd. v. The Czech Republic icsid Case No. arb/06/5 (April 15th 2009).

Plama Consortium Limited v. Republic of Bulgaria icsid Case No. arb/03/24 iic 338 Award (August 27th 2008).

Romak S.A. (Switzerland) v. The Republic of Uzbekistanuncitralpca Case No. AA280 (2009).

Ruler of Qatar v. International Marine Oil. Co. Ltd (1953) 20. ilr 534.

Salini Costruttori s.p.a. v. Morocco icsid Case No. arb/00/4 Decision on Jurisdiction (July 23 2001) 42 i.l.m. 609 (2003).

Société Général de Surveillance s.a. v. Pakistan icsid Case No. arb/01/13 Objections to Jurisdiction (Aug. 5 2003) 18 icsid Rev. 301 (2003).

Société Général de Surveillance s.a. v. Philippines icsid Case No. arb/02/6 Objections to Jurisdiction 136–55 (Jan. 29 2004) 8 icsid Rep. 518 (2005).

Texaco Overseas Petroleum Company and California Asiatic Oil Company v Government of Libya (Preliminary Award) 53 ilr 389 (Nov. 27 1975).

Tidewater Inc. Tidewater Investment srl Tidewater Caribe al. v. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela icsid Case No. arb/10/5 Decision on Claimants’ Proposal to Disqualify Professor Brigitte Stern Arbitrator (23 Dec. 2010).

Venezuela Holdings v. Venezuela icsid Case No. arb/07/27 Decision on jurisdiction (June 10 2010).

World Duty Free Company Limited v. Republic of Kenya icsid Case No. arb/00/7 Award (October 2006).

Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v. The Russian Federation uncitralpca Case N. aa 227 Final Award (July 18th 2014).

Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. (u.k. v. Iran) 1952 i.c.j. 93 (July 22).

Barcelona Traction Light and Power (Belg. v. Spain) 1964 i.c.j. 6 (July 24).

Case Concerning The Factory at Chorzow 1928 p.c.j.i. (ser. A) No. 17 (Sept. 13).

Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (elsi) (u.s. v. It.) 1989 i.c.j. 15 (July 20).

Factory at Chorzów Judgment 1928 p.c.i.j. (ser. A) No. 17 p. 47. (Sept. 13).

The Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions 1924 p.c.j.i. (ser. A) No. 2 (Aug. 30).

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica and the Government of Canada for the Protection and Promotion of Investment (18 March 1998) entered into force 29 September 1999 (Costa Rica-Canada bit).

Agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of the Philippines on the Promotion and Reciprocal Protection of Investments (April 18 1997) entered into force 29 September 1999 (Germany-Philippines bit).

Agreement Between the Government of Japan and the Government of the Russian Federation Concerning the Promotion and Protection of Investment Japan-Russ. Nov. 13 1998.

Agreement for the Reciprocal Protection of Investments signed between the Republic of El Salvador and the Kingdom of Spain (14 February 1995) 1983 unts 349 entered into force 20 February 1996.

Bilateral Investment Treaty between the Government of India and the Government of [Country] Model bit.

Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States adopted Mar. 18 1965 575 u.n.t.s. 159.

Havana Charter for an International Trade Organization u.n. Doc. E/Conf. 2/78 at 14 (Mar. 24 1948).

North American Free Trade Agreement Dec. 8–Dec. 17 1993 32 i.l.m. 289 (1993).

oecd Draft Convention on Protection of Foreign Property 7 i.l.m. 117 (1967).

The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (comesa) Investment Agreement (2007).

The Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement between Canada the European Union and its Member States European Comm’n Consolidated ceta Text (2014).

Energy Charter Treaty 2080 unts 95 (1994).

eu—Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (Open for signature Dec. 2 2015 not yet in effect).

eu—Mexico Free Trade Agreement (updated text as of April 2017 not in effect).

-France-Ecuador Bilateral Investment Treaty (1994).

Southern African Development Community (sadc) Model bit (July 2012).

Trans-Pacific Partnership (tpp) Agreement (Opened for signature February 4 2016 not yet in effect).

Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Trade in Services Investment and E Commerce 17 European Commission Draft Text ttip (updated as of 2015).

Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation Between His Britannic Majesty and the

United States of America (Jay Treaty) us-u.k. Nov. 19 1794 8 Stat. 116 T.S. 105 12 Bevans 13.

Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation Nov. 28 1956 u.s.-s. Kor. art. xxiv 8 u.s.t. 2217 t.i.a.s. No. 3947.

Treaty of Friendship Establishment and Navigation Feb. 23 1962 U.S.-Lu. art. xvii 14 u.s.t. 251 t.i.a.s. No. 5306.

Treaty of Friendship Commerce and Navigation Aug. 23 1951 U.S.-Isr. art. xxiv 5 u.s.t. 550 t.i.a.s. No. 2948.

Treaty between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of [Country] Concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection Investment [us Model bit 2012].

U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement U.S.-Colom. Nov. 22 2006.

U.S.-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement U.S.-Peru April 12 2006.

Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States g.a. Res. 3281 (xxix) u.n. Doc. A/9631 (Dec. 12 1974).

Declaration on the Establishment of a New International Economic Order g.a. Res. 3201 (S-VI) u.n. Doc. A/res/S-6/3201 (May 1 1974).

Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts in Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of Its Fifty-third Session un gaor 56th Sess. Supp. No. 10 at 43 un Doc. A/56/10 (2001).

uncitral Arbitration Rules g.a. Res. 65/22 un Doc. A/res/65/22 (2010).

u.n. Secretary-General The Promotion of the International Flow of Private Capital u.n. Doc. E/3325 (1960).

Encyclopædia Britannica

European Commission website

Global Affairs Canada NAFTA Free Trade Commission

ICSID website

Investment Policy Hub

Office of the United States Trade Representatives (USTR): Summary of Objectives for the NAFTA Renegotiation

Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP)

Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)

The Group of 77

the new york times

the washington post

United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

U.S. Department of Commerce

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 56 56 21
Full Text Views 10 10 10
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0