Psychology and Religion within an Ideological Surround

In: Brill Research Perspectives in Religion and Psychology

Abstract

For over three decades, an Ideological Surround Model (ISM) has pursued theoretical and methodological innovations designed to enhance the ‘truth’ and ‘objectivity’ of research into psychology and religion. The foundational argument of the ISM is that psychology as well as religion unavoidably operates within the limits of an ideological surround. Methodological theism, therefore, needs to supplement the methodological atheism that dominates the contemporary social sciences. Methodological theism should operationalize the meaningfulness of religious traditions and demonstrate empirically that the influences of ideology cannot be ignored. The ISM more generally suggests that contemporary social scientific rationalities need to be supplemented my more complex dialogical rationalities. Beliefs in secularization should also be supplemented by beliefs in trans-rationality.

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  • Watson, P. J. (1993). “Apologetics and Ethnocentrism: Psychology and Religion within an Ideological Surround.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 3: 1–20. doi:10.1207/s15327582ijpr0301_1.

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  • Watson, P. J. (1998). “Girard and Integration: Desire, Violence, and the Mimesis of Christ as Foundation for Postmodernity.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 26: 311–321. doi:10.1177/009164719802600401.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2004). “After Postmodernism: Perspectivism, a Christian Epistemology of Love, and the Ideological Surround.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 32: 248–261. doi:10.1177/009164710403200309.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2006). “Friends of the Truth, Violence, and the Ideological Surround: Social Science as Meetings for Clearness.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 28: 123–132. doi:10.1163/008467206777832643.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2008). “Faithful Translation and Postmodernism: Norms and Linguistic Relativity within a Christian Ideological Surround.” Edification: Journal of the Society for Christian Psychology 2(1): 5–18. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://www.christianpsych.org/wp_scp/wp-content/uploads/edification-journal-21.pdf#page=4.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2010). “Christian Rationality and the Postmodern Context: The Example of Rational-Emotive Therapy within a Christian Ideological Surround.” Edification: The Transdisciplinary Journal of Christian Psychology 4(1): 64–74. Retrieved November 29, 2018, from http://www.christianpsych.org/wp_scp/wp-content/uploads/Edification-4.1.pdf#page=64.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2011). “Whose Psychology? Which Rationality? Christian Psychology within an Ideological Surround after Postmodernism.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 30: 307–316. Retrieved on December 19, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281442553_Whose_Psychology_Which_Rationality_Christian_Psychology_within_an_Ideological_Surround_after_Postmodernism.

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  • Watson, P. J. (2014). “Transition beyond Postmodernism: Pluralistic Culture, Incommensurable Rationalities, and Future Objectivity.” Review & Expositor 111: 33–40. doi.org/10.1177/0034637313510480.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhou J. Chen, and Nima Ghorbani. (2014). “Extrinsic Cultural Religious Orientation: Analysis of an Iranian Measure in University Students in the United States.” Journal of Beliefs and Values 35: 61–78. doi:10.1080/13617672.2014.884849.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhou J. Chen, Nima Ghorbani, and Meghdi Vartanian. (2015). “Religious Openness Hypothesis: I. Religious Reflection, Schemas, and Orientations within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34: 99–113. Retrieved December 11, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paul_Watson4/publication/281294398_Religious_Openness_Hypothesis_I_Religious_Reflection_Schemas_and_Orientations_within_Religious_Fundamentalist_and_Biblical_Foundationalist_Ideological_Surrounds/links/55e09da308ae6abe6e897508.pdf.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (2011). “Biblical Foundationalism and Religious Reflection: Polarization of Faith and Intellect Oriented Epistemologies within a Christian Ideological Surround.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 39: 111–121. doi:10.1177/009164711103900202.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, and Ronald J. Morris. (2014). “Varieties of Quest and the Religious Openness Hypothesis within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds.” Religions 5: 1–20. doi:10.3390/rel5010001.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, and Ronald J. Morris. (2018). “Sanctification of Learning and Religious Openness: Contrasts across Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds.” Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 29: 352–376. doi:10.1163/9789004382640_018.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, Ronald J. Morris, and Nima Ghorbani. (2017). “Religious Problem-Solving Styles within an American Religious Ideological Surround.” Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 28: 22–51. doi:10.1163/9789004348936_003.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, Ronald J. Morris, and Nima Ghorbani. (2018). “Religion within a Dark Triad Ideological Surround: Pluralistic Self as Dialogue across Private, Communal, and Public Space.” Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 29: 377–400. doi:10.1163/9789004382640_019.

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  • Watson, P. J., Zhuo J. Chen, Ronald J. Morris, and Erin Stephenson. (2015). “Religious Openness Hypothesis: III. Defense against Secularism within Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34: 125–140. Retrieved December 11, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281294655_Religious_Openness_Hypothesis_III_Defense_against_Secularism_within_Fundamentalist_and_Biblical_Foundationalist_Ideological_Surrounds.

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  • Watson, P. J., Nima Ghorbani, Meghdi Vartanian, and Zhuo J. Chen. (2015). “Religious Openness Hypothesis: II. Religious Reflection and Orientations, Mystical Experience, and Psychological Openness of Christians in Iran.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34: 114–124. Retrieved December 11, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281294403_Religious_Openness_Hypothesis_II_Religious_Reflection_and_Orientations_Mystical_Experience_and_Psychological_Openness_of_Christians_in_Iran.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ralph W. Hood, Jr., and Ronald J. Morris. (1985). “Dimensions of Religiosity and Empathy.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 4(3): 73–85. Retrieved December 11, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232432379_Dimensions_of_Religiosity_and_Empathy.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ralph W. Hood, Jr., and Ronald J. Morris. (1988). “Existential Confrontation and Religiosity.” Counseling and Values 33: 47–54. doi:10.1002/j.2161-007x.1988 .tb00735.x.

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  • Watson, P. J., J. Trevor Milliron, Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1994). “Religion and Rationality: II. Comparative Analysis of Rational-Emotive and Intrinsically Religious Rationalities.” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 13: 373–384. Retrieved on December 19, 2018 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232526470_Religion_and_rationality_II_Comparative_analysis_of_rational-emotive_and_intrinsically_religious_irrationalities.

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  • Watson, P. J., J. Trevor Milliron, Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1995). “Religion and the Self as Text: Toward a Christian Translation of Self-Actualization.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 23: 180–189. doi:10.1177/009164719502300304.

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  • Watson, P. J., and Ronald J. Morris. (2006). “Intolerance of Ambiguity within a Religious Ideological Surround: Christian Translations and Relationships with Religious Orientation, Need for Cognition, and Uncertainty Response.” Archive for the Psychology of Religion 28: 81–101. doi:10.1163/008467206777832634.

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  • Watson, P. J., and Ronald J. Morris. (2008). “Self-Control within a Christian Ideological Surround.” Edification: Journal of the Society for Christian Psychology 2(2): 62–72. Retrieved on November 29, 2018 from http://www.christianpsych.org/wp_scp/wp-content/uploads/edification-22.pdf#page=62.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1987). “Antireligious Humanistic Values, Guilt, and Self-Esteem.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 26: 535–546. doi:10.2307/1387103.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1988a). “Sin and Self-Functioning, Part 1: Grace, Guilt, and Self-Consciousness.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 16: 254–269. doi:10.1177/009164718801600305.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1988b). “Sin and Self-Functioning, Part 2: Grace, Guilt, and Psychological Adjustment.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 16: 270–281. doi:10.1177/009164718801600306.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ronald J. Morris, and Ralph W. Hood, Jr. (1989). “Sin and Self-Functioning, Part 5: Antireligious Humanistic Values, Individualism, and the Community.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 17: 157–172. doi:10.1177/009164718901700210.

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  • Watson, P. J., Ronald J. Morris, Taylor Loy, Michael B. Hamrick, and Sheldon Grizzle. (2007). “Beliefs about Sin: Adaptive Implications in Relationships with Religious Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Measures of the Narcissistic, Depressed and Anxious Self.” Edification: Journal of the Society for Christian Psychology 1: 57–67. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from http://www.christianpsych.org/wp_scp/wp-content/uploads/edification-journal-113.pdf#page=57.

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  • Watson, P. J., Benjamin S. Reagan, Zhuo J. Chen, and Ronald J. Morris. (Forthcoming). “Xenophilia and the Religious Openness Hypothesis: Love of the ‘Stranger’ within Religious Fundamentalist and Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surrounds.” Journal of Psychology and Theology. doi:10.1177/0091647118807184.

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  • Watson, P. J., Pauline Sawyers, Ronald J. Morris, Mark L. Carpenter, Rachael S. Jimenez, Katherine A. Jonas, and David L. Robinson. (2003). “Reanalysis within a Christian Ideological Surround: Relationships of Intrinsic Religious Orientation with Fundamentalism and Right-Wing Authoritarianism.” Journal of Psychology and Theology 31: 315–328. doi:10.1177/009164710303100402.

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  • Williamson, W. Paul, Ralph W. Hood, Jr., Aneeq Ahmad, Mahmood Sadiq, and Peter C. Hill. (2010). “The Intratextual Fundamentalism Scale: Cross-cultural Application, Validity Evidence, and Relationship with Religious Orientation and the Big 5 Factor Markers.” Mental Health, Religion & Culture 13: 721–747. doi:10.1080/13674670802643047.

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