This monograph enquires into the fairness dilemma in connection with the construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (gerd) in light of relevant colonial-era Nile treaties, post-1990 Nile framework instruments, and international watercourses law. The gerd is now a fait accompli, but fairness considerations will continue to be vital issues in its completion, filling, and operation. The monograph argues that the gerd is a symbol of a fair share of the Nile waters by Ethiopia, the realization of which depends on, inter alia, an appropriate economic return, benefit sharing and prevention of significant impacts. The monograph also calls for a process to address the issue of unfair agreements, and argues that, although fairness application can be complex, the notions of procedural fairness and distributive justice can be applied to define and delineate the principle with reference to a specific treaty regime.
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Ibid. pp. 8–15. Franck underlined the need for an agreement on ‘a core of reciprocally applicable rules’ (p. 12). ‘Moderate scarcity’ refers to ‘a finite non-renewable’ particularly something in ‘short global supply’ (p. 9). ‘Community’ is ‘a social system of continuing interaction and transaction. It is only in a community that the bedrock of shared values and developed principles necessary to any assessment of fairness is found.’ (pp. 9–10).
Ibid. pp. 16–18.
Ibid. p. 14.
J. Tasioulas‘International Law and the Limits of Fairness,’European Journal of International LawVol. 13(4) (2002) pp. 993–1023; I. Scobbie ‘Tom Franck’s Fairness’ European Journal of International Law Vol. 13(4) (2002) pp. 909–925.
D. Kritsiotis‘Imagining the International Community,’European Journal of International LawVol. 13(4) (2002) pp. 961–992 p. 968; D. Shelton ‘Equity’’ in D. Bodansky J. Brunnée & E. Hey (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law pp. 640–661 (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007) pp. 645–649.
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R. Wolfrum‘Commentary on Purposes and Principles (Art 1),’inB. Simma et al. The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary3rd ed.Volume 1 pp. 113–114 (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2012) pp. 113–114; Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Case supra note 49 para. 71; Case Concerning the Gabčikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v Slovakia) Judgement of 25 September 1997  icj Reports 7 para. 147; Z. Yihdego & A. Rieu-Clarke ‘An Exploration of Fairness in International Law Through the Blue Nile and GERD’ Water International Vol. 41(4) (2016) pp. 528–549.
McCaffrey supra note 73 p. 401; A. Rieu-Clarke & G. Pegram ‘Impacts on the International Architecture for Transboundary Waters’ in F. R. Loures & A. Rieu-Clarke The UN Watercourses Convention in Force: Strengthening International Law for Transboundary Water Management pp. 67–76 (Abingdon: Routledge 2103).
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Ibid. p. 55(footnotes omitted). The ilc did also clarify that ‘[b]y excepting treaties establishing a boundary from its [Article 62] scope the present article would not exclude the operation of the principle of self-determination in any case where the conditions for its legitimate operation existed’ (ibid p. 58).
McCaffrey supra note 73 p. 269; G. T. Degefu The Nile: Historical Legal and Developmental Perspectives (New York: Trafford Publishing 2003) p. 99.
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K. Hossain‘The Environmental Law-Making Process,’inS. Alam et al Routledge Handbook of International Environmental Law pp. 61–76 (Abingdon: Routledge 2013) p. 70. Arguably however the ‘adoption application modification interpretation and termination of treaties are in principle applicable to framework agreements and their protocols’ as per N. Matz-Lück ‘Framework Conventions as a Regulatory Tool’ Goettingen Journal of International Law Vol. 1(3) (2009) pp. 439–458 p. 442. It ought to be noted that the author appears to use the phrase ‘framework convention’ as synonymous to a ‘framework agreement.’
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P. WoutersInternational Water Law: Selected Writings of Professor Charles B. Bourne (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff1997) p. 182. The icj in the Pulp Mills case (supra note 46) states that ‘the obligation to inform CARU [Adminstrative Commission of the River Uruguay a body established by a treaty] allows for the initiation of co-operation between the Parties which is necessary in order to fulfil the obligation of prevention’ (para. 102).
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