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社會資本對文化價值和習俗的影響:台灣外省人的個案研究

A Case Study on the Chinese Community in Taiwan

The Role of Social Capital in the Transformation of Cultural Values and Practices

In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society
Authors:
Kamila KolpashnikovaUniversity of British Columbia, kkamila@mail.ubc.ca

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Matthew GalwayUniversity of British Columbia, matt.galway@alumni.ubc.ca

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Osamu SudohUniversity of Tokyo, sudoh@iii.u-tokyo.ac.jp

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This study explores the traditional views of assimilationists and cultural retentionists on the outcome of an encounter between two heterogeneous groups. Proponents of contact theory along with social capital theorists argue that greater contact and social capital between two groups result in more similarity between them. Other scholars predict that social contact fosters distinction. This study compares the effects of social capital on religious values and practices among the socially connected Taiwanese (benshengren) and Chinese (waishengren) in Taiwan. Data from the 2006 Asia Barometer and repeated cross-sections (2004, 2007, 2009, 2010, and 2011) of the Taiwan Social Change Survey indicate that the Chinese are significantly different from the Taiwanese in terms of the effects of social capital on religious values and practices. The Chinese in Taiwan are also distinct from the Taiwanese in terms of the effects of gender norms on religious values and practices. These findings provide additional evidence for cultural retention rather than assimilation among Chinese in Taiwan.

本文探討台灣兩種異質群體的社會資本如何影響其文化價值觀和習俗,並以同化主義和文化保留主義 (cultural retentionist) 的傳統觀點來分析結果。接觸理論 (contact theory) 和社會資本理論認為,兩個群體之間越多接觸和社會資本,這兩個群體就越變得相似。可是,其他學者卻認為接觸會導致更多差異。我們的研究對象是台灣的台灣本省人和外省人,研究問題是他們的價值觀和習俗有何異同。根據亞洲指標體系調查問卷 (2006) 及台灣社會變遷調查 (2004, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011) 的數據顯示,就社會資本對宗教價值和習俗的影響而言,外省人和台灣本省人有顯著的差異。另一方面,就性別規範對宗教信仰的影響而言,外省人和台灣本省人也有差異。本研究結果證實,文化保留主義最能解釋上述的社會現象。​​ (This article is in English.)

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