中国清真寺的空间研究:新疆和宁夏的案例研究

Xinjiang and Ningxia as Case Studies

In: Review of Religion and Chinese Society

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Different from conventional research methods, spatial study applies gis to study space, time, and mapping, all of which are valuable in analyzing religious institutions, sites, and locations. Supported by multiple spatial, digital, and statistical methods, this study selects eight cities and prefectures in China and examines their Islamic mosques based on accessible government data. Following a discussion of methodologies and data, the article focuses on the density of the Muslim population in the selected cities by calculating the average number of Muslims attending one mosque. In addition, this study applies a spatial method, the location analysis method (lam), to scrutinize the availability of Islamic mosques by measuring the average distance between Chinese Muslim residential areas and the nearest mosque. Furthermore, this study employs two additional spatial methods, the two-step floating catchment area method (2sfca) and the network analysis method (nam), to investigate the accessibility of mosques by estimating the average driving time required for Muslims to reach the nearest mosque. After comparing the average rankings of density, availability, and accessibility of mosques in the eight cities and prefectures, this study proposes three criteria for determining mosque accessibility in Xinjiang and Ningxia, two areas in China with a large concentration of Muslims.

区别于传统的宗教研究方法,空间研究是利用地理信息系统的科技手段和方法,展示和分析宗教发展的空间、时间和图像。本项研究是综合空间、数码和统计的多种方法,选择中国新疆和宁夏的八个城市和地区,依据中国政府官方的统计数据,对当地伊斯兰教清真寺的存在性和可达性进行案例研究。文章首先讨论了研究方法和数据来源,其次计量分析了所选八个地区清真寺与穆斯林人口的比例和稠密度,由此得出参加每一个清真寺活动的穆斯林之平均人数。同时,文章使用空间研究中的“区域分析法”,计算每个穆斯林从居住地到达最近清真寺的平均距离。另外,文章还使用了空间研究中“两步法”和“网络分析法”,对比研究每个穆斯林从居住地到最近清真寺的平均驾车或乘车时间。最后,文章根据穆斯林稠密度、清真寺存在性和可达性,提出了鉴定一个地区清真寺可达性程度高低和难易的三个初步计量标准,以便展示和分析伊斯兰教市场的供需矛盾。 (This article is in English.)

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