In 2013, the Zhejiang government initiated a campaign to demolish church crosses (DCC) throughout the province in the name of landscape improvement. In April 2016, the campaign was abruptly and quietly halted. The termination of the campaign was primarily due to unremitting resistance by Christians in Zhejiang. This article provides a temporal and spatial analysis of the DCC campaign that reveals multiple failures on the part of the Zhejiang authorities, including missing several self-imposed deadlines to remove all church crosses in the province, inconsistently implementing the campaign in various regions, and causing the breakdown of the bridging mechanism between Christian churches and the party-state. The failure of the DCC campaign is an important empirical case for studies of religion and Chinese society. It indicates that the church-state equilibrium in China may be approaching a tipping point.
BBC Chinese. 2016. “Priest Couple Bao Guohua and Xing Wenxiang Are Convicted with Lengthy Sentences” 浙江教案：包国华、刑文香牧师夫妻遭重判. http://www.bbc.com/zhongwen/simp/china/2016/02/160226_china_church_trial(accessed January 10 2018).
Center on Religion and Chinese Society. 2010. “Strangers No More: Village Churches on the Good Earth of the Sacred Land.” https://www.purdue.edu/crcs/events/global-china-forum/global-china-forum-2010/photo-exhibition/.
YiluChen 陈逸鲁. 2014. “Some Thoughts from Modern Management Science on the Demolition of the Sanjiang Cross” 从现代管理学的角度思考强拆三江十字架事件. Pushi Institute for Social Science. May 1.http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=4973(accessed January 10 2018).
Hangzhou Chongyi Church. 2015. “Churches in Hangzhou Respond to ‘The Regulation of Religious Buildings in Zhejiang Province’: The Administrative Department Involved Should Not Interfere in Religious Affairs” 杭州教会反馈《浙江省宗教建筑规范》：主管部门不宜涉及宗教内部事务. http://www.gospeltimes.cn/index.php/portal/article/index/id/28664(accessed January 10 2018).
HaoZhidong and LiuYan. 2018. “Mutual Accommodation in the Church-State Relationship in China? A Case Study of the Sanjiang Church Demolition in Zhejiang.” Review of Religion and Chinese Society5 (1): 26–42.
HuangJianbo and YangFenggang. 2005. “The Cross Faces the Loudspeakers: A Village Church Perseveres Under State Power.” In State Market and Religions in Chinese Societies
edited by YangFenggang and TamneyJoseph B.41–62. Leiden: Brill. doi 10.1163/243955-04102002b.
JohnsonIan. 2014. “Church-State Clash in China Coalesces Around a Toppled Spire.” New York TimesMay 30
https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/30/world/asia/church-state-clash-in-china-coalesces-around-a-toppled-spire.html(accessed January 10 2018).
New York Times. 2014a. “The 2013 Implementation Plan of the TROD Involving Illegal Religious Buildings”‘三改一拆’涉及宗教违法建筑处置工作实施方案 2013
https://cn.nytimes.com/china/20140530/cc30document/(accessedJanuary 10 2018).
People’s Daily. 2015. “There Is No End to Work: Taking the Lead and Creating a New Environment” 干在实处永无止境，走在前列要谋新篇. May 28. http://dangjian.people.com.cn/n/2015/0528/c117092-27067969.html(accessed January 10 2018).
UniversityPurdue. 2010. “Purdue Galleries begins a new season of exhibitions.” Purdue University News Service. August 19. http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/events/2010/100819AR-MartinGalleries.html(accessed January 10 2018).
Shamen Government. 2014. “The Implementation Plan of Regulating the Illegal Religious Buildings in Shamen Township” 沙门镇宗教和民间信仰活动场所违法建筑专项整治工作实施方案. http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=4877(accessed January 10 2018).
UCAN News. 2014. “Zhejiang Christians Suspect Officials’ Promotions or Demotions Related to Three Rectifications and One Demolition” 浙江基督徒怀疑官员升迁和追责与三改一拆有关. June 27. http://china.ucanews.com/2014/06/27/(accessed January 10 2018).
WangAiming王艾明. 2014. “The Amount and Degree of Demolition of Illegal Structures in Zhejiang: The Cross and the State Rationality” 浙江拆违的量与度——十字架与国家理性. Gospel TimesJune 29. http://m.gospeltimes.cn/news/23734(accessed January 10 2018).
YingFuk-tsang. 2018. “The Politics of Cross Demolition: A Religio-Political Analysis of the ‘Three Rectifications and One Demolition’ Campaign in Zhejiang Province.” Review of Religion and Chinese Society5 (1): 43–75.
PeihongZhang张培鸿. 2015. “The Affidavit from Pastor Yizi Huang in Defense of Charges of Disturbing Social Order” 黄益梓牧师涉嫌聚众扰乱社会秩序案辩护词. Website of the Pu Shi Institute for Social Science
http://www.pacilution.com/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=5685(accessed January 10 2018).
Zhejiang Catholic Patriotic Association and Church Affairs Committee. 2015. “Zhejiang Catholic Patriotic Association (CPA) Strongly Requested the Authorities to Stop Cross Demolition Immediately” 浙江省天主教“两会”强烈要求立即停止拆除十字架. http://msguancha.com/a/lanmu4/2015/0707/12750.html(accessed January 10 2018).
Zhejiang Christian Council. 2015. “An Open Letter of the Zhejiang Christian Council to Zhejiang Ethnic and Religious Affairs Commission to Stop Cross Demolition” 浙江基督教协会呼吁 停止强拆教堂十字架. http://www.rfa.org/mandarin/Xinwen/13-07112015163733.html(accessed January 10 2018).
Zhejiang Daily. 2014. “Yongjia County of Wenzhou Demolished the Sanjiang Illegal Religious Building” 浙江永嘉依法拆除三江违法宗教建筑. April 29. http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2014/0429/c83084-24955806.html(accessed January 10 2018).
Zhejiang Government. 2013. “The Announcement of the Three Year Plan of the ‘Three Rectification, One Demolition’ throughout Zhejiang Province” 浙江省人民政府关于在全省开展‘三改一拆’三年行动的通知. http://www.zj.gov.cn/art/2013/3/13/art_13012_77021.html(accessed January 10 2018).
Zhejiang Provincial Ethnic and Religious Affairs Commission. 2015. “The Draft of Regulation of Religious Buildings in Zhejiang Province” 浙江宗教建筑规范征求意见. https://zj.zjol.com.cn/news/96883.html(accessed January 10 2018).
ZhuJianzhong. 2017. “Religious Regulation and Churches Responses—A Case Study on the Anti-demolition Action of Christianity in Wenzhou.” Paper presented at the international conference “Changing Religious Landscape in Contemporary East Asia” July 11–13 2017Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong.