The paternal obligation to teach sons Torah has developed from the halahkic approach of the Talmud period through the halakhic approach of medieval ages scholars (especially Maimonides), to the modern halakhic approach of the Israeli Rabbinical Courts. This development reflects the transformation of the Teaching-Torah concept from a strict paternal religious commandment toward sons to a comprehensive parental-cultural responsibility to young children.
High Rabbinic Court App. 39/5733 (1973) P.D.R. 9 251.
MaimonidesHil. Talmud Torah1:3. The Leḥem Mishneh points out that Maimonides’ approach is revolutionary and not based on Rabbinic sources. There were two attempts to connect his approach to the sources: the first was by the Lehem Mishneh himself relying on the Maharik; the second attempt was by the Hagahot Maimoniyot quoting R. Meir of Rottenberg.