The heirs of the initial, philosophical Judaism, in the second century C.E. received a system in which the subject of economics—the rational disposition of scarce resources—was utilized in order to set forth a systemic statement of fundamental importance. While making every effort to affirm the details of that statement and apply them, their system repeated the given but made no significant use of what had been received. Instead the heirs of the Mishnah invented what we must call a counterpart-category, that is to say, a category that dealt with problems of the rational utilization of scarce resources, but not with those same scarce resources defined by the philosophical system of the Mishnah. The systemic category for the aborning religious system was not an economics, but corresponded, in the new system, to the position and role of economics in the old.