The impetus of this article is the response of the New Testament scholar Pieter Botha to a book entitled Bondgenoot en beeld (1991) written by the Systematic theologian Adrio König. König's reaction to Botha's discussion and critique published in one of the issues of Theologia Evangelica (1993) reveals a lack of comprehension of the issues at stake. Botha's main critique is that König does not take the Enlightenment seriously. This article commences with a short historical overview of three main paradigm switches in Biblical Studies: the Reformation, the historical-critical approach and the paradigm switch that came along with the birth of modern literary criticism. It then attempts to identify the paradigms within which Botha and König work and in the last instance discusses the main reason why they are at loggerheads. The conclusion drawn is that only theologians who work within the same paradigm can communicate meaningfully.