In this article attention is drawn to the emphasis on Jesus' Jewishness in current historical Jesus studies. Some of the findings of this research are briefly presented. Three reasons for this development are identified: the resurgence in historical Jesus studies, the re-evaluation of early Judaism by scholarship, and contemporary doubts about Christology. The Jewishness of Jesus confronts us with many challenges and new problems and some are identified and discussed. The improved understanding of early Judaism challenges us to revise our views of early Christian tradition, and our interpretive stances, assessments and beliefs about Jesus of Nazareth.