Ritual Burning and Slaughtering in an AIC: Perspectives from Liturgical Studies and Old Testament Criticism

in Religion and Theology
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Abstract

This article offers the results of research in which two theological fields cooperated in order to investigate one specific repertoire of liturgical rituals. From the perspective of both Liturgical Studies, and its focus on the functioning of ritual within its cultural context, and Old Testament Studies, and a focus on how biblical critics understand certain rituals described in the Priestly texts in the Pentateuch, ritual burning and slaughtering in an AIC was studied. Ritual Studies is beginning to play a much more prominent role in the engagement with books such as Leviticus and Numbers and also in Liturgical Studies, and this article is an example of how these two disciplines can fruitfully cooperate in the study of liturgical rituals in an AIC in South Africa.

Ritual Burning and Slaughtering in an AIC: Perspectives from Liturgical Studies and Old Testament Criticism

in Religion and Theology

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References

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1

Cf. Paul Post“Zeven notities over rituele verandering, traditie en (vergelijkende) liturgiewetenschap,” Jaarboek voor liturgie-onderzoek 11 (1995): 1–30.

11

Interview with Mrs Richmond 27 June 2011.

15

See Willem Frijhoff“Toeëigening: van bezitsdrang naar betekenisgeving,” Trajecta 6 no. 2 (1997): 105–106.

16

Frijhoff“Toeëigening” 106.

17

See Gerard LukkenInculturatie en de toekoms van de liturgie (Heeswijk-Dinther: Uitgeverij Abdij van Berne1994); Gerard Lukken “Inculturatie van de liturgie: theorie en praktijk” Liturgie en inculturatie (ed. J. Lamberts; Leuven: Uitgeverij Acco 1996).

18

See BoschTransforming Mission450.

19

See Lukken“Inculturatie van de liturgie” 22. For the concept of liturgical inculturation see also amongst many others Duraiswami S. Amalorpavadass “Theological Reflections on Inculturation” Studia Liturgica 20 (1990): 36–54; Anscar Chupungco “Inculturation of Worship: Forty Years of Progress and Tradition: Liturgical Institute Conference Proceedings. Paper 5 (2003)” n.p. [cited 10 July 2012]. Online: http://scholar.valpo.edu/ils_papers/5; “Mission and Inculturation: East Asia and the Pacific” in The Oxford History of Christian Worship (ed. G. Wainwright and K. Westerfield-Tucker; Oxford: Oxford University Press 2006) 661–677; Nwaka Egbulum “Mission and Inculturation: Africa” in The Oxford History of Christian Worship (ed. G. Wainwright and K. Westerfield-Tucker; Oxford: Oxford University Press 2006) 678–695; Lutheran World Federation Chicago Statement on Worship and Culture: Baptism and Rites of Life Passage (Geneva: Lutheran World Federation 1998); Ben de Klerk “Wisselwerking tussen Liturgie en Kultuur in die Suid-Afrikaanse Konteks – Enkele Vertrekpunte” Practical Theology in South Africa 16 no. 2 (2001): 57–75; Aylward Shorter Towards a Theology of Inculturation (Maryknoll: Orbis 1998).

20

See Louis Van Tongeren“De inculturatie van de liturgie tot (stil)stand gebracht?” Jaarboek voor liturgie-onderzoek 12 (1996): 164–186.

21

Anscar ChupungcoCultural Adaptation of the Liturgy (New York: Paulist Press1982).

23

BoschTransforming Mission55.

24

Cf. PostLiturgische bewegingen11.

26

Cf. PostLiturgische bewegingen65–66.

28

See in this regard Marcel Barnard“African worship in the Amsterdam business district: Liturgy in immigrant churches,” in A Moving God. Immigrant Churches in the Netherlands (ed. M. Jansen and H. Stoffels; Berlin: LIT2008) 115–137.

30

Jean-Louis SkaIntroduction to Reading the Pentateuch (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns2006) 109–110.

31

See SkaIntroduction110. See also Joseph Blenkinsopp The Pentateuch: An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible (London: Yale University Press 1992) 9–12.

32

John J. CollinsIntroduction to the Hebrew Bible (Minneapolis: Fortress2004) 173.

33

See SkaIntroduction111. He argues that Wellhausen was “translating the Lutheran ‘creed’ regarding the Law and the Gospel into historical categories”.

34

Mary DouglasPurity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (London: Routledge1966). This book did generate new interest in the book of Leviticus. Other more recent contributions include: Mary Douglas In the Wilderness: The Doctrine of Defilement in the Book of Numbers (Sheffield: JSOT 1993) and Mary Douglas Leviticus as Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press 1999).

36

E.g. Jeffrey R StackertRewriting the Torah: Literary Revision in Deuteronomy and the Holiness Legislation (FAT 52; Tübingen: Mohr2006).

38

E.g. Reinhard AchenbachDie Vollendung der Tora: Studien zur Redaktionsgeschichte des Numuribuches im Kontext von Hexateuch und Pentateuch (BZAR 3; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz2003).

40

Erich ZengerEinleitung in das Alte Testament. (7th ed.; Stuttgart: Kohlhammer2008) 175.

41

Thomas B. Dozeman“The Book of Numbers: Introduction, Commentary, and Reflections,” in The New Interpreter’s Bible (ed. L. E. Keck: Nashville: Abingdon 1998) 2:9.

46

Baruch E. LevineNumbers 1–20: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB 4; New Haven: Yale University Press1993).

47

LevineNumbers 1–20457–458.

49

LevineNumbers 1–20460. See also Jacob Milgrom The JPS Torah Commentary: Numbers במדבר (New York: Jewish Publication Society 1990) 158 and Ludwig Schmidt Das 4. Buch Mose Numeri: Kapitel 1011–3613 (ATD 7/2; Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2004) 86.

50

LevineNumbers 1–20471.

51

LevineNumbers 1–20461.

52

Lauren A. S. MonroeJosiah’s Reform and the Dynamics of Defilement: Israelite Rites of Violence and the Making of a Biblical Text (Oxford: Oxford University Press2011) 9. She is actually discussing an earlier work of Levine here.

53

LevineNumbers 1–20462.

54

LevineNumbers 1–20462.

55

LevineNumbers 1–20462.

58

See LevineNumbers 1–20461. These offerings are “brought in order to expiate major offenses on the part of the entire Israelite community or its chief priest” . . .

59

See LevineNumbers 1–20461–462.

60

See LevineNumbers 1–20462.

62

See LevineNumbers 1–20462.

64

See Esias E. Meyer“Respect for Animal Life in the Book of Leviticus: How Green Were the Priestly Authors?” OTE 24 no. 1 (2011): 142–158. Or see Nihan Priestly Torah 339.

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