Tradition has long held that the Socialist Revolutionary Party (PSR) was primarily peasant-oriented. Titles of important studies of the party suggest that the respective authors adhere to-the traditional view.1 Awareness of Socialist Revolutionary. (SR) successes among the peasantry in 1917, culminating in their sweep of provincial Russia in the Constituent Assembly elections in November, has heightened the perception of the SRs as a predominantly peasant party. Whatever the origin of the misapprehension, primary sources indicate that along with their interest in the peasantry (at times intense, at other times surprisingly muted) SRs took a great interest in the urban proletariat and, in return, received strong support from workers. The primary task of this study, then, is to examine the relationship between SRs and urban workers from about 1902 to 1907.2 This of course raises the question of SR and populist revolutionary programs before 1902.