The Standard of Living of the Russian Population in the 18th – early 20th Centuries by Anthropometric Data

in Russian History
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Abstract

Living standards in Russia of 1701-1795 had negative dynamics. It was explained mainly by the increase of the real burden of taxation and duties in connection with wars, reforms and intensive colonization. Living standards in Russia of 1796-1914 had positive dynamics. It was explained by (1) the increase of the basic food stuffs per capita, (2) the growth of income of peasantry per capita, (3) the reduction of real burden of taxation, (4) the increase of the grain prices, (5) the positive economic result of displacement of the population center on the South, (6) the economic policy of the government. There was a decrease in the well-being of the population during the radical reforms. However, after a while, the reforms salutarily affected the living standard. The wars and the revolutions negatively influenced the well-being. Three Russian revolutions of the beginning of 20th century have been caused by the political reasons in the greater degree, than economic ones, and also the brilliant PR-activity of opponents of a monarchy.

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