The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’ Before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204

in Russian History
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The Galician-Volhynian prince Roman Mstislavich became the main military ally of the Byzantine Empire in the early 13th century. The circumstances and the time of Roman’s campaign in Niketas Choniates’ account are the same as in the Russian chronicles reporting the steppe campaigns of the prince. All the Byzantine sources name Roman Mstislavich the “igemon of Galicia”. The term igemon, unlike other Byzantine titles of Rusian princes, meant the Emperor’s ally and relative (or in-law). The alliance between Alexios III and Roman led also to more stable relations with the Rusian population of the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube. The military aid that Roman rendered to Alexios III was guaranteed by Roman’s marriage to the niece of Alexios III, the elder daughter of the overthrown emperor Isaak II.

The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’ Before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204

in Russian History

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1

 See A. V. Maiorov‘The daughter of a Byzantine Emperor – the wife of a Galician-Volhynian Prince’Byzantinoslavicavol. 72 nr. 1–2 2014 pp. 45–93.

13

 See Cankova-PetkovaBъlgarija pri Asenevci pp. 21–50; Petrov Vъzstanovjavane na Bъlgarskata derzhava.

15

Ibid p. 429; Nicetae Choniatae Orationes et Epistulae ed. I. A. van Dieten. (Berlin; New York) 1972 (=CFHB ser. Berolinensis vol. iii) p. 3.

18

Ibid p. 446.

19

Ibid p. 468.

20

Ibid pp. 473 487 499–501 522–523.

21

Ibid pp. 522–523.

22

BrandByzantium confronts the West p. 132; Vásáry Cumans and Tatars pp. 48–49.

34

Ibid pp. 493–494.

35

Ibid pp. 520–522. – Cf: Die Seltschukengeschichte des Ibn Bibi ed. and transl. H. W. Duda. (Kopenhagen 1959) pp. 21–27; see also: Cl Cahen Pre-Ottoman Turkey. 1071–1330. (London 1968) p. 115.

44

Cankova-PetkovaBъlgarija pri Asenevci pp. 42–43; Bozhilov Familijata na Asenevci pp. 44–45.

50

Vásáry I.Cumans and Tatars p. 48.

52

GrablerDie Kreuzfahrer erobern Konstantinopel p. 272; Brand Byzantium confronts the West pp. 122–124 347–348 n. 14; Diethen Niketas Choniates p. 124.

54

Ibid pp. 522–523. – Researchers dated the news year 1202: Grabler Die Kreuzfahrer erobern Konstantinopel p. 95.

57

Ibid vol. i col. 420; vol. iii p. 240.

60

Ibid vol. iii p. 240.

62

Ibid p. 87.

65

BerezhkovHronologija russkogo letopisanija pp. 87.

73

KotljarDaniil knjaz’ Galickij p. 43.

79

Ibid p. 523.

80

Ibid pp. 400 401 413 493 520 638 639.

83

Grala‘Drugie małżeństwo Romana Mścisławicza’ p. 126; D. Dąbrowski Rodowód Romanowiczów ksiąźąt halicko-wołyńskich [Pedigree Romanovich princes of Galicia-Volhynian]. (Poznan; Wroclaw 2002) pp. 38–39; Vojtovich Knjazha doba na Rusi p. 486.

86

C. Sathas‘Deux lettres inédites de l’empereur Michel Ducas Parapinace à Robert Guiscard, rédigées par Michel Psellus’Annuaire de l’association pour l’encouragement des études grecques en Francevol. 8 1874 pp. 193–221.

88

 See H. Bibicou‘Une page d’histoire diplomatique de Byzance au XI siècle: Michel VII Doukas, Robert Guiscard et la pension des dignitaires’Byzantionvol. 29–30 1960 p. 56 n. 3; A. P. Kazhdan Rus’-Byzantine Princely Marriages in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries’ Harvard Ukrainian Studies vol. 12–13 1990 pp. 418–419.

90

Vasilievskij‘Russko-vizantijskie otryvki. I.’ p. 36.

91

Cited in ibid pp. 9–10.

92

ObolenskijVizantijskoe sodruzhestvo p. 239. – On the theory of the supremacy of the Byzantine emperor and his supreme sovereignty over all Christian nations as well as site of the ancient Rus in the Byzantine “hierarchy of states” see: G. Ostrogorsky ‘The Byzantine emperor and the hierarchical world order’ The Slavonic and East European Review vol. 35. (London 1956–1957) pp. 1–14; I. P. Medvedev ‘Imperija i suverenitet v srednie veka (na primere istorii Vizantii i nekotoryh sopredel’nyh gosudarstv)’ [Empire and sovereignty in the Middle Ages (for example the history of Byzantium and some neighboring countries)] in Problemy istorii mezhdunarodnyh otnoshenij [Problems of the history of international relations] Collection of articles in memory of Academician E. V. Tarle. (Leningrad 1972) pp. 415–424; G. G. Litavrin ‘Ideja verhovnoj gosudarstvennoj vlasti v Drevnej Rusi domongol’skogo perioda’ [The idea of ​​the supreme state power in ancient Russia pre-Mongolian period] in G. G. Litavrin Vizantija i slavjane [Byzantium and the Slavs]. St (Petersburg 1999) pp. 470–477.

96

MejendorfVizantija i Moskovskaja Rus’ pp. 19–23.

98

Cited in Vasilievskij V. G.‘Russko-vizantijskie otryvki I’ pp. 10.

99

Cited in ibid p. 13.

105

Vasilievskij‘Russko-vizantijskie otryvki. I’ pp. 29–30 n. 1.

109

LitavrinBolgarija i Vizantija v XI–XII vv. pp. 411–414.

115

Ph. Malingoudis‘Die Nachrichten des Niketas Choniates über die Entstehung des Zweiten bulgarischen Staates’Byzantinavol 10. (Thessaloniki 1978) pp. 136–137.

123

Litavrin‘Dva jetjuda o vosstanii Petra i Asenja’ p. 354.

125

Ibid p. 58.

126

BibikovVizantijskie istochniki po istorii Drevnej Rusi i Kavkaza pp. 155. – See also: Litavrin ‘Dva jetjuda o vosstanii Petra i Asenja’; A. P. Kazhdan’Nikifor Hrisoverg i Nikolaj Mesarit: opyty sravnitel’noj harakteristiki’ [Nicephoros Chrysobergos and Nicholaos Mesarites: comparative experiments characteristics] Vizantijskij vremennik vol. 30. (Moscow 1969) pp. 94–112.

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