Insulting the person and dignity of the ruler (lèse-majesté) was considered a state crime in 19th-century Russia and was investigated across the empire. This article draws on a small sample of cases from provincial archives to examine how factors of ethnicity and religion affected the way such cases were reported in local communities as well as how they were then investigated and prosecuted by state authorities.
Jane Burbank“An Imperial Rights Regime: Law and Citizenship in the Russian Empire,”Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 7 3 (2006): 402. On legal pluralism of this sort as an “unremarkable habit” of empires see Jane Burbank and Frederick Cooper “Rules of Law Politics of Empire” in Lauren Benton and Richard J. Ross (eds.) Legal Pluralism and Empires 1500–1850 (New York: New York University Press 2013) 279–294.