How Secular Are Western Governments’ Religion Policies?

in Secular Studies
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Abstract

This study examines government religion policy in 26 Western democracies between 1990 and 2014 using the Religion and State round 3 (RAS3) dataset to determine whether these policies can be considered secular. While many assume that the West and its governments are secular and becoming more secular, the results contradict this assumption. All Western governments support religion in some manner, including financial support. All but Canada restrict the religious practices and/or religious institutions of religious minorities. All but Andorra and Italy restrict or regulate the majority religion. In addition religious both governmental and societal discrimination against religious minorities increased significantly between 1990 and 2014. All of this indicates religion remains a prominent factor in politics and society in the West.

Sections
References
  • Achterberg Peter Dick Houtman Stef Aupers Willem De Kister Peter Mascini & Jerome Van Der Waal. 2009. “A Christian Cancellation of the Secularist Truce? Waning Christian Religiosity and Waxing Religious Deprivitization in the West” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 48 (4): 687–701.

  • Almond Gabriel R. Scott Appleby and Emmanuel Sivan. 2003. Strong Religion: The Rise of Fundamentalism around the World Chicago: University of Chicago Press 2003.

  • Appleby R. Scott 2000. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion Violence and Reconciliation New York: Rowman and Littlefield.

  • Bader Veit. 1999. “Religious Pluralism: Secularism or Priority for Democracy” Political Theory 27 (5): 597–633.

  • Branas-Garza Pablo & Angel Solano. 2010. “Religious Favoratism in Europe: A Political Competition Model” Rationality and Society 22 (3): 333–352.

  • Berger Peter L. 2009. “Faith and Development” Society 46 (1): 69–75.

  • Bruce Steve. 2009. “Secularization and Politics” in. Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics ed. Jeffrey Haynes (New York: Routledge) pp. 145–158.

  • Calhoun Craig. 2012. “Secularism Citizenship and the Public Sphere” in Rethinking Secularism eds. Craig Calhoun Mark Juergensmeyer & Jonathan VanAntwerpen (New York NY: Oxford University Press) pp. 86–102.

  • Casanova Jose. 2009. “The Secular and Secularisms” Social Research 76 (4) 1049–1066.

  • Casanova Jose. 2012. “The Secular Secularization and Secularisms” in Rethinking Secularism eds. Craig Calhoun Mark Juergensmeyer & Jonathan VanAntwerpen (New York NY: Oxford University Press) pp. 65–85.

  • Cavenaugh William T. 2009. The Myth of Religious Violence: Secular Ideology and the Roots of Modern Conflict Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Cesari Jocelyne. 2014. The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion Democracy and the State New York NY: Cambridge University Press.

  • Crouch Melissa. 2009. “Religious regulations in Indonesia: failing vulnerable groups” Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 43 (2) 53–103.

  • Dawson Stephen. 2015. “The Religious Resurgence: Problems and Opportunities for International Relations Theory” in Nations Under God: The Geopolitics of Faith in the Twenty-First Century eds. Luke M. Herrington Alasdair McKay & Jeffrey Haynes. (Bristol UK: E-International Relations Publishing) pp. 23–29.

  • Demerath N.J. III. 2001. Crossing the Gods: World Religions and Worldly Politics New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.

  • Driessen Michael D.P. 2010. “Religion. State and Democracy: Analyzing Two Dimensions of Church-State Arrangements” Politics and Religion 3 (1) 55–80.

  • Durham W. Cole Jr. 1996. “Perspectives on Religious Liberty: A Comparative Framework” in Religious Human Rights in Global Perspective: Legal Perspectives eds. John D. van der Vyver & John Witte Jr. (Boston: Martinus Njhoff) pp. 1–44.

  • Ebaugh Helen R. 2002. “Return of the Sacred: Reintegration Religion in the Social Sciences” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 41 (3) 385–395.

  • Emerson Michael O. & David Hartman. 2006. “The Rise of Religious Fundamentalism” Annual Review of Sociology 32 127–144.

  • Esbeck Carl H. 1988. “A Typology of Church-State Relations in American Thought” Religion and Public Education 15 (1) 43–50.

  • Esposito John L. and John O. Voll. 2000. “Islam and the West: Muslim Voices of Dialogue” Millennium 29 (3) 613–639.

  • Farha Mark. 2012. “Global Gradations of Secularism: The Consociational Communal and Coercive Paradigms” Comparative Sociology 11 (3) 354–386.

  • Farr Thomas F. 2008. “Diplomacy in an age of faith: religious freedom and national security.” Foreign Affairs 87 (2) 1190–120.

  • Fetzer Joel S. and J. Christopher Soper. 2003. “The Root of Public Attitudes Toward State Accommodation of European Muslims’ Religious Practices Before and After September 11” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42 (2) 247–258.

  • Finke Roger. 2013. “Origins and Consequences of Religious Restrictions: A Global Overview” Sociology of Religion 74 (3) 297–313.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2004. Religion Civilization and Civil War: 1945 Through the New Millennium Lanham MD: Lexington Books.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2008. A World Survey of Religion and the State New York NY: Cambridge University Press 2008.

  • Fox Jonathan 2012. “The Religious Wave: Religion and Domestic Conflict 1960 to 2009” Civil Wars 14 (2) 141–158.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2015. Political Secularism Religion and the State: A Time Series Analysis of Worldwide Data New York NY: Cambridge University Press.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2016. The Unfree Exercise of Religion: A World Survey of Religious Discrimination against Religious Minorities New York NY: Cambridge University Press.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2018. An Introduction to Religion and Politics: Theory and Practice second edition London Routledge.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2017. “Religious Discrimination in European and Western Christian-Majority Democracies” Zeitschrift für Religion Gesellschaft und Politik (Journal for Religion Society and Politics) 1 (2) 185–209.

  • Fox Jonathan. 2019. “A World Survey of Secular-Religious Competition: State Religion policy from 1990 to 2014” Religion State & Society 47 (1) 10–29. doi.org/10.1080/09637494.2018.1532750.

  • Fox Jonathan & Shmuel Sandler. 2006. Religion in World Conflict New York NY: Routledge.

  • Gill Anthony. 2007. “Religion and Comparative Politics” Annual Review of Political Science 4 2001 117–138.

  • Gill Emily R. 2004. “Religious Organizations Charitable Choice and the Limits of Freedom of Conscience” Perspectives on Politics 2 (4) 741–755.

  • Gorski Phillip S. & Ates Altinordu. 2008. “After Secularization” Annual Review of Sociology 24 2008 55–85.

  • Grotsch Florian & Anette Schnabel. 2012. “Integration—What Integration? The Religious Framing of the European Integration Process between 1990 and 2000” European Societies 14 (4) 586–610.

  • Hadden Jeffrey K. 1987. “Toward Desacralizing Secularization Theory” Social Forces 65 (3) 587–611.

  • Hadden Jeffrey K. & Anson Shupe. 1986. Prophetic Religion and Politics: Religion and the Political Order Vol One New York Paragon.

  • Hallward Maia Carter. 2008. “Situation the ‘Secular’: Negotiating the Boundary between Religion and Politics” International Political Sociology 2 (1) 1–16.

  • Haynes Jeffrey. 2012 “Religion Democracy and Civil Liberties: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Raqmifications” European Political Science 29 June 2012 doi:10.1057

  • Haynes Jeffrey. 2009. “Transnational Religious Actors and International Order” Perspectives 17 (2) 43–70.

  • Haynes Jeffrey. 1998. Religion in Global Politics New York: Longman.

  • Haynes Jeff. 1997. “Religion Secularisation and Politics: A Postmodern Conspectus” Third World Quarterly 18 (4) 709–728.

  • Helbling Marc. 2014. “Opposing Muslims and the Muslim Headscarf in Western Europe” European Sociological ReviewDOI:10.1093

  • Henne Peter S. 2013. “The Domestic Politics of International Religious Defamation” Politics and Region 6 (3) 512–537.

  • Hoover Dennis R. & Douglas M. Johnston eds. 2012. Religion and Foreign Affairs: Essential Readings Waco Tx: Baylor University Press.

  • Huntington Samuel P. 1993. “The Clash of Civilizations?” Foreign Affairs 72 (3) 22–49.

  • Huntington Samuel P. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of the World Order New York: Simon and Schuster.

  • Hurd Elizabeth S. 2007. The Politics of Secularism in International RelationsNJ: Princeton University Press.

  • Hurd Elizabeth S. 2004. “The Political Authority of Secularism in International Relations” European Journal of International Relations 10 (2) 235–262.

  • Jelen Ted G. 2007. “The Constitutional Basis of Religious Pluralism in the United States: Causes and Consequences” Annals of the American Association of Political and Social Sciences. 612 26–41.

  • Jelen Ted G. 2017. “Religion and Self-Governance: Catholicism Islam and the Issue of Censorship.” Politics and Religion doi:10.1017/S1755048317000244.

  • Juergensmeyer Mark. 1993. The New Cold War? Berkeley: University of California.

  • Juergensmeyer Mark. 2008. Global Rebellion: Religious Challenges to the Secular State from Christian Militias to Al Qaeda Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Kaplan Edward H. & Charles A. Small. 2006. “Anti-Israel Sentiment Predicts Anti-Semitism in Europe” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50 (4) 548–561.

  • Keane John. 2000. “Secularism?” The Political Quarterly 71 (Supplement 1) 5–19.

  • Keysar Ariela. 2017. “Religious / Nonreligious Demography and Religion Versus Science” in The Oxford Handbook of Secularism eds. Phil Zuckerman & Johan R. Shook (New York NY: Oxford University Press) pp. 40–53.

  • Kettell Steven 2012. “Has Political Science Ignored Religion” PS: Political Science and Politics 45 (1) 93–100.

  • Kuhle Lene. 2011. “Concluding Remarks on Religion and State in the Nordic Countries” Nordic Journal of Religion and Society 24 (2) 205–213.

  • Kuru Ahmet T. 2009. Secularism and State policies Toward Religion The United States France and Turkey Cambridge University Press.

  • Madood Tariq. 2010. “Moderate Secularism Religion and Identity and Respect for Religion” The Political Quarterly 81 (1) 4–14.

  • Marquand D and R.L. Nettler. 2000. “Forward” The Political Quarterly 71 (Supplement 1) 1–4.

  • Martin David A. 1978. A General Theory of Secularization Oxford UK: Blackwell.

  • Martin J. Paul. 2015. “Whose God? A Human Rights Approach” in Nations Under God: The Geopolitics of Faith in the Twenty-First Century eds. Luke M. Herrington Alasdair McKay & Jeffrey Haynes. (Bristol UK: E-International Relations Publishing) pp. 218–228.

  • Mavelli Luca. 2011. “Security and Secularization in International Relations” European Journal of International Relations doi.10.1177/1354066110396592 1–23.

  • Mazie Steven V. 2004. “Rethinking Religious Establishment and Liberal Democracy: Lessons From Israel” Brandywine Review of Faith and International Affairs 2 (2) 3–12.

  • Mazie Steven V. 2006. Israel’s Higher Law: Religion and Liberal Democracy in the Jewish State New York: Lexington.

  • Minkenberg Michael. 2017. “Between Christian and Multicultural Democracy: Religious Legacies and Minority Politics” West European Politicsdoi.org/10.1080/01402382.2017.1343967 1–27.

  • Muchlinski David. 2014. “Grievances and Opportunities: Religious Violence across Political Regimes” Politics & Religion doi:10.1017/S1755048314000534.

  • Norris Pippa and Ronald Inglehart. 2004. Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • Perez Nahshon Jonathan Fox & Jennifer M. McClure. 2017. “Unequal State Support of Religion: On Resentment Equality and the Separation of Religion and State” Politics Religion & IdeologyDOI: 10.1080/21567689.2017.1400429

  • Philpott Daniel. 2007. “Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion” American Political Science Review 101 (3) 505–525.

  • Philpott Daniel. 2009. “Has the Study of Global Politics Found Religion?” Annual Review of Political Science 12 183–202.

  • Sherkat Daren E. & Christopher G. Ellison. 1999. “Recent Development and Controversies in the Sociology of Religion” Annual Review of Sociology 25 363–394.

  • Stark Rodney & Roger Finke. 2000. Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion Berkeley CA: University of California Press.

  • Stepan Alfred. 2000. “Religion Democracy and the ‘Twin Tolerations’ ” Journal of Democracy 11 (4) 37–56.

  • Svensson Isak & Desiree Nilsson. 2017. “Disputes over the Divine: Introducing the Religion and Armed Conflict (RELAC) Data 1975 to 2015” Journal of Conflict ResolutionDOI: 10.1177/0022002717737057 1–22.

  • Tausch Arno. 2014. “The New Global Antisemitism: Implications for the Recent ADL-100 Data” Middle East Review of International Affairs 18 (3) 46–72.

  • Thomas Scott M. 2000. “Taking Religious and Cultural Pluralism Seriously: The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Society” Millennium 29 (3) 815–841.

  • Thomas Scott M. 2005. The Global Resurgence of Religion and the Transformation of International Relations: The Struggle for the Soul of the Twenty-First Century New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

  • Tibi Bassam. 2000. “Post-Bipolar Disorder in Crisis: The Challenge of Politicized Islam” Millennium 29 (4) 843–859.

  • Toft Monica D. 2007. “Getting Religion? The Puzzling Case of Islam and Civil War” International Security 31 (4) 97–131.

  • Toft Monica D. Daniel Philpott & Timothy S. Shah. 2011. God’s Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics New York NY: W.W. Norton & Company.

  • Zuckerman Phil & Johan R. Shook eds. The Oxford Handbook of Secularism New York NY: Oxford University Press.

Figures
Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 219 219 17
Full Text Views 15 15 0
PDF Downloads 12 12 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0