The year 2015 saw an unprecedented number of refugees and migrants arriving to Europe through the “Western Balkans migration route”, where the states through which the route passed established the so-called “humanitarian corridor”. The operation of this corridor was outside the European normative framework and was treated by those states as a de facto undeclared “state of exception”. This situation, marked by an exceptionally intensive arrival of refugees and migrants en masse, was governed by ad hoc rules that were changing on a daily basis, creating an extremely unpredictable and uncertain situation for all stakeholders involved, in particular for the migrants and refugees themselves. This article discusses the crimmigration responses to mass migration management that are prevalent in contemporary law and politics, analyses the corridor within the current crimmigration context and demonstrates how the corridor defied the contemporary crimmigration approach to mass migration.
Asylum Information Database (2015) Halt on Dublin Procedures for Syrians 24 August 2015 available at: http://www.asylumineurope.org/news/24-08-2015/germany-halt-dublin-procedures-syrians (accessed 20 December 2016).
CeladorG.C.; JuncosA.E.2012. “The eu and Border Management in the Western Balkans: Preparing for European Integration or Safeguarding eu External Borders?”Southeast European and Black Sea Studies12 (2): 201–220.
Centre for Peace Studies. 2016. Report on Systemic Human Rights Violations by the Croatian Authorities in the Closed Parts of the Winter Reception and Transit Centre in Slavonski Brod 16 March 2016 available at: http://cms.hr/system/article_document/doc/261/Report_on_Systemic_Human_Rights_Violations_in_the_Winter_Reception_and_Transit_Centre_in_Slavonski_Brod.pdf (accessed 20 December 2016).
ChacónM.J.2009. “Managing Migration through Crime” Columbia Law Review Sidebar Volume109: 135–148 available at: http://www.columbialawreview.org/Sidebar/volume/109/135_Chacon.pdf (accessed 15 February 2017).
Council of EuropeEuropean Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 and 14 4 November 1950 ets 5 available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3b04.html (accessed 20 December 2016).
Directive 2008/115/ecof the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on common standards and procedures in Member States for returning illegally staying third-country nationalsoj l348 24.12.2008: 98–107.
European Commission. 2015. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the follow-up to the Leaders’ Meeting on refugee flows along the Western Balkans Route, com(2015) 676 final, 15.12.2015. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/securing-eu-borders/legal-documents/docs/report_western_balkans_en.pdf (accessed 20 December 2016).
GuardianThe. 2015. Hungary closes main Budapest station to refugees1 September 2016available at:https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/01/migrant-crisis-hungary-closes-main-budapest-station (accessed 20 December 2016).
GuiaM.J.2013. Crimmigration, Securitisation and the Criminal Law of the Crimmigrant in: GuiaM.J.van der WoudeM. and van der LeunJ. (eds.): Social Control and Justice. Crimmigration in the Age of FearThe Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing: 17–40.
Human Rights Ombudsman. 2015. Monitoring vstopne točke za begunce na železniški postaji Dobova 6.11.2015 available at: http://www.varuh-rs.si/medijsko-sredisce/sporocila-za-javnosti/novice/detajl/monitoring-vstopne-tocke-za-begunce-na-zelezniski-postaji-dobova-in-centru-livarna/?cHash=22ce7f5c01565fd31478512dded4884c (accessed 20 December 2016).
LadićM. and VučkoK.2016. Slovenia’s Response to Increased Arrivals of Refugees: We don’t want them, but we also don’t understand why they don’t want to stayRazor-Wired. Reflections on Migrant Movements through Slovenia in 2015 2016 (Ljubljana: Peace Institute): 15–30.
MitsilegasV.2013. The Changing Landscape of the Criminalisation of Migration in Europe: The Protective Function of the European Union Law in: GuiaM.J.WoudeM. van der and LeunJ. van der (ed.). 2013. Social Control and Justice. Crimmigration in the Age of Fear (The Netherlands: Eleven International Publishing): 87–113.
M.S.S. v. Belgium and GreeceApplication no. 30696/09, Council of Europe: European Court of Human Rights, 21 January 2011 available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d39bc7f2.html (accessed 21 December 2016).
Peace Institute. 2016a. Report from a visit of reception centre and train station Dobova 15.1.2016 available at: http://www.mirovni-institut.si/porocilo-o-obisku-sprejemnega-centra-in-zelezniske-postaje-dobova/ (accessed 20 December 2016).
Peace Institute. 2016b. Report from a visit of reception centre and train station Dobova 3.2.2016 available at:http://www.mirovni-institut.si/porocilo-o-obisku-sprejemnega-centra-in-zelezniske-postaje-dobova-2/ (accessed 20 December 2016).
Peace Institute. 2016c. Report on drastic changes related to the treatment of refugees 18.2.2016 available at: http://www.mirovni-institut.si/porocilo-o-izrazitih-spremembah-v-zvezi-z-obravnavo-beguncev/ (accessed 20 December 2016).
Regulation(ec) No. 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 establishing a Community Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)oj l105 13.4.2006: 1–32.
Regulation(eu) No. 2016/399 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on a Union Code on the rules governing the movement of persons across borders (Schengen Borders Code)oj l77 23.3.2016: 1–52.
Regulation(eu) No. 603/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 on the establishment of ‘Eurodac’ for the comparison of fingerprints for the effective application of Regulation (eu) No. 604/2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person and on requests for the comparison with Eurodac data by Member States’ law enforcement authorities and Europol for law enforcement purposes, and amending Regulation (eu) No. 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale it systems in the area of freedom, security and justiceoj l180 29.6.2013: 1–30.
Regulation(eu) No. 604/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2013 establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determining the Member State responsible for examining an application for international protection lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country national or a stateless person (Dublin iii)oj l180 29.6.2013: 31–59.
Reuters. 2016a. “Serbian police, army to form joint border patrols to stem illegal crossings” 16 July 2016 available at:http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-serbia-border-idUSKCN0ZW0IR (accessed 16 February 2017).
Reuters. 2016b. “Hungary to send more police, army to patrol its borders” 9 March 2016 available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-hungary-idUSKCN0WB19N (accessed 16 February 2017).
Reuters. 2016c. “Bulgaria to use army to help guard border in migrant crisis” 18 February 2016 available at:http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-bulgaria-idUSKCN0VR19E (accessed 16 February 2017).
ŠalamonN.K.BajtV. (eds.). 2016. Razor-Wired
Reflections on Migrant Movements through Slovenia in 2015 2016 (Ljubljana: Peace Institute) available at:http://www.mirovni-institut.si/en/razor-wired-reflections-on-migrant-movements-through-slovenia-in-2015/ (accessed 20 December 2016).
StumpfJ.P.2013. “Preemption and Proportionality in State and Local Crimmigration Law,” in: ParryJ.T. and RichardsonL.S. (eds.). The Constitution and the Future of Criminal Justice in America (New York: Cambridge University Press): 241–259.