Green Approaches to Enhancing Rural Communities in Romania: Case Studies from Maramureş and Sibiu Counties

in Southeastern Europe
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The concept of development evolves following the transformations and new challenges communities have to face. In this framework, in the past twenty years, development discourse has covered questions about the interrelations among its different dimensions (economic, human, social, environmental, institutional), about the transition from linear to circular models, and about the role (and importance) of endogenous resources. This evolution has increased the attention given to local development strategies and their role in the promotion of sustainability and socio-economic growth by recognizing and reorganizing local resources.

This article grounds the concept of territorial capital to Maramureş County (Romania) with the aim of understanding its role and of assessing its potential as a driving force to guide local communities in the exploitation of endogenous resources. Through a comparative analysis of the case studies of the Tâvarna Mare Natura 2000 site (Sibiu County) and Oaş Gutai (Maramureş County), the work also aims to provide general insights to inform local development policies.

The research is based on multiple research methods including secondary data analysis, a survey, and a set of interviews with local stakeholders and rural development experts, and it is developed through a comparative analysis between the case studies.

Green Approaches to Enhancing Rural Communities in Romania: Case Studies from Maramureş and Sibiu Counties

in Southeastern Europe



adept Foundation (Fundatia adept). 2010. “High Nature Value Grasslands. Securing the ecosystem services of European farming post 2013,” presented at the International Conference of the European Forum on Nature Conservation and PastoralismHigh Nature Value Grasslands. Securing the ecosystem services of European farming post-2013 ; Sibiu, Romania (7–9 September 2010).

Ambrosio-Abbala M. Delgado M. 2008. “Understanding rural areas dynamics form a complex perspective- An application of prosepctive structural analysis,” presented at the 12theaae Congress “People food and environment: global trends and European strategies”; Ghent, Belgium (24–29 August 2008).

Babes-Bolyai University Faculty of Geography Centre for Regional Geography. 2008. “Reactualizare plan de amenajare a teritoriului judeţean – patj – judeţul Maramures” in Potenţialul natural resursele umane sistemul de localiităţi Faza I-a: Situaţia existentă şi disfuncţionalităţi Vol. i. Infrastructura tehnicǎ a teritoriului. Economia Faza I-a: Situaţia existentă si disfuncţionalităţiVol. ii (Proiect nr. 6671/14.11.2008) (Cluj-Napoca: Babes-Bolyai University).

Barham E. 2003. “Translating terroir: the global challenge of French aoc labelingJournal of Rural Studies19: 127138.

Barnett J. 2001. “Security and Climate Change.” Working Paper 7 by Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. <> (accessed on May 13 2016).

Basile E. Cecchi C. 2005. “Building Social Capital in Rural Areas: Does Public Action Help? Engaging Communities,” presented at theInternational Conference organised by the Government of Queensland and the United Nations; Brisbane, Australia (14–17 August 2005).

Beaufoy G. Marsden K. 2010 . cap reform 2013. Last chance to stop the decline of Europe’s high nature value farming?” Policy Paper by European Forum on Nature Conservation and Pastoralism BirdLife International European Environmental Bureau International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements- eu Group wwf – World Wide Fund for Nature Proposal for a new eu cap . <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Bosco A. 2003. Come si costruisce un questionario (Rome: Carocci Editore).

Bourdieu P. 1987. “The forms of capital” in J.G. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (New York: Greenwood Press).

Braakhekke W. Bekhuis J. Pop E. Barbu R. 2006. “Natural grazing in Maramures. Harvesting of wilderness meat as a driver for conservation of landscapes and biodiversity,” report written in collaboration with wwf-Danube Carpathian Programme Office/wwf-One Europe More Nature Commissioned by wwf-Netherlands Stroming ltd Nijmegen (nl). (accessed on February 25 2014).

Brunori G. 2006. “Post-rural processes in wealthy rural areas: hybrid networks and symbolic capitalResearch in Rural Sociology and Development 12: 121145.

Brunori G. Rossi A. 2007. “Differentiating countryside: social representations and governance pattern in rural areas with high social density: the case of Chianti, ItalyJournal of Rural Studies 23 (2): 183205.

Cavicchi B. Bryden J.M. Vittuari M. 2014. “A comparison of bioenergy policies and institutional frameworks in the rural areas of Emilia Romagna and NorwayEnergy Policy 67: 355363.

Ciangǎ N. 2007. Wooden churches – a representative component in the cultural rural landscape of Transylvania” in Romanian Review of Regional Studies3 (2): 5962.

Clark W. 2009. “Sustainability science: an emerging interdisciplinary frontier,”. address given at the Opening Ceremony of the xxiv Cycle PhD Programme in International Cooperation and Sustainable Development Policies University of Bologna; Bologna, Italy (May 6 2009).

Communication from the European Commission Europe. 2010. The world No.1 tourist destination – a new political framework for tourism in Europe (com (2010) 352 final). <> (accessed on March 6 2017).

County Council of Maramureş (Consiliul Judeţean Maramures – cjmm). 2006a. Dezvoltarea turismului În Judeţul Maramureş. < (accessed on February 25 2014)>.

County Council of Maramureş (Consiliul Judeţean Maramures – cjmm). 2006b. Planul de dezvoltare durabilǎ a Judeţului Maramureş 2007–2013. (accessed on February 25 2014).

European Commission (ec). 2009. LEADER + Best practices, 2009/4,Observatory of rural areas. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

European Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development. 2012. Integrating environmental concerns into the cap. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

European Commission Directorate-General for Internal Market Industry Entrepreneurship and smes. 2015. Guide on eu Funding for the Tourism sector July 2015. <> (accessed on January 26 2016).

European Commission. 2016. The European Network for Rural Development (enrd) – Community-Led Local Development (clld) > Policy and guidance <> (accessed on January 26 2016).

European Parliament. 2013. Semi-Subsistence FarmingValue and Directions of Development. <> (accessed on March 6 2017).

European Union. 2014. Community-Led Local Development Cohesion Policy 2014–20 Factsheet March . <> (accessed on Janaury 26 2016).

Freeman R. and Reed D. 1983. “Stockholders and stakeholders: A new perspective on corporate governanceCalifornia Management Review25: 88106.

Kazakova Y. Pop E. wwf-Danube Carpathian Programme. 2009. Socio-economic Benefits of Natura 2000a case study on the ecosystem services provided by Oaş-Gutâi Plateau and Igniş site Maramures Romania. Output of the project Financing Natura 2000: Cost estimate and benefits of Natura 2000. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Government of Romania – Ministry of Development Public Works and Housings (mdlpl). 2007. Programul Operaţional Regional 2007–2013 (Bucharest: Government of Romania).

Government of Romania – Ministry of Agriculture Forests and Rural Development (madr). 2010. National Rural Development Programme 2007–2013 – consolidated version 30 June 2010 (Bucharest: Government of Romania).

Lehtonen M. 2004. “The environmental-social interface of sustainable development: capabilities, social capital, institutions” in Ecological Economics49 (2). [Papers of the Eighth Meeting of the International Society for Ecological Economics; Montreal qc. Canada July 11–14] <> (accessed on May 13 2016).

Mahon M. 2007“New populations; shifting expectations: the changing experience of Irish space and place in Journal of Rural Studies23 . <> (accessed on May 13 2016).

Mazoyer M. Roudart L. 2006. A History of World Agriculture: From the Neolithic Age to the Current Crisis (London: Earthscan).

Mettepenningen E. Vandermeulen V. Cappon R. Leinfelder H. Laurijssen T. Bryon J. Messely L. Dessein J. Bourgeois M. 2009. “Multifunctionality and local identity as paradigms for sustainable and competitive agriculture” in MUSICAL . (Brussels: Belgian Science Policy). <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Morgan D.L. 2008 . The sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. (Thousand Oaks: sage Publications Inc.):. 816817 <> (accessed on January 25 2016).

Murdoch J. Lowe P. N. Ward Marsden T. 2003. The differentiated countryside (London: Routledge).

National Institute of Statistics (Institutul National de Statistică ins). 2011. “ românia Repere economice şi sociale regionale: Statistică teritorială”. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd). 2001. “Transaction costs and multifunctionality: main issues” presented at oecd Workshop on Multifunctionality; Paris, France (2–3 June 2001). <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

oecd. 2006. The new rural paradigm (Paris: oecd Publishing).

oecd. 2010. Paying for Biodiversity: Enhancing the Cost-Effectiveness of Payments for Ecosystem Services (pes) (Paris: oecd Publishing).

oecd. 2014. International Migration Outlook 2014 (Paris: oecd Publishing).

oecd. 2014. Tourism Trends and Policies. (Paris: oecd Publishing). <> (accessed on January 26 2016).

Official Journal of the European Union. 2013. “Regulation (eu) No 1305/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 17 December 2013 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (eafrd) and repealing Council Regulation (ec) No 1698/2005Official Journal of the European Union (accessed on January 26 2016).

Official Journal of Romania (Monitorul Oficial). 2007. “Ordonanță de urgență nr. 57/2007, Privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei și faunei sălbatice,” Monitorul Oficial i (442) (57) (June 20 2007).

Official Journal of Romania (Monitorul Oficial). 2008. “Ordonanță de urgență nr. 154/2008, pentru modificarea si completarea Ordonantei de urgenta a Guvernului nr. 57/2007 privind regimul ariilor naturale protejate, conservarea habitatelor naturale, a florei si faunei salbatice si a Legii vanatorii si a protectiei fondului cinegetic nr. 407/2006,” Monitorul Oficial i (787) (25 November 2008).

Page N. 2010. “Case Study: the role of subsistence and semi-subsistence farms in the delivery of public goods in Romania,” presented at the Seminar on Semi-subsistence farming in the eu: current situation and future prospects; Sibu Romania (October 13–15 2010). [Case study commissioned for the European Network for Rural Development].

Pollice I. 2002. Una lettura geografica delle politiche del turismo (Milano: Franco Angeli).

Pop E . 2010. “Maramuresdoing business the green way” interview on wwf Global. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Regoli F. 2011 (Unpublished). Bridging innovation nature and tradition: assessment of strategies for rural tourism development in Maramureş (Romania) (Bologna: University of Bologna).

Regoli F. Vittuari M. Segrè A. 2011. “Policy options for sustainability. A preliminary appraisal of rural tourism in Romania: the case of Maramureş” in Sidali K.L. Spiller A. Schulze B. (eds.) Food Agriculture and TourismLinking local enograstronomy and rural tourism: interdisciplinary perspective (Heidelberg: Springer).

Regoli F. Vittuari M. Bogdanov N. Milic B. Segrè A. 2012. “Risorse territoriali e governance rurale: un’analisi comparata tra Romania e SerbiaAgriregionieuropa 8 (28): 7781.

Robinson J. 2004. “Squaring the circle? Some thoughts on the idea of sustainable development,” Ecological Economics 48. <> (accessed on May 13 2016).

Sage C. 2003Social embeddedness and relations of regard: alternative ‘good food’ networks in South-West Ireland,” Journal of Rural Studies 19. <> (accessed on June 1 2016).

Storey D . 1999. “Issues of integration, participation, and empowerment in rural development: the case of LEADER in the Republic of Ireland Journal of Rural Studies=15 (3). <> (accessed on June 1 2016).

Salasan C. Fritzsch J. 2009. “The role of farm activities for overcoming rural poverty in Romania” in Burchenrieder G. and Möllers J. (eds.) Structural Change in Europe’s Rural RegionsFarm Livelihoods Between Subsistence Orientation Modernization and Non-farm Diversification (Halle: iamo Studies Series iaae 2009 Mini-symposium).

Sandu D. Radu C. Constantinescu M. Ciobanu O. 2004. A Country Report on Romanian Migration Abroad: Stocks and Flows After 1989 (Prague: Multicultural Center Prague). <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

Șteliac N. 2014. “The Romanian Migration between Official and UnofficialInternational Journal of Business and Social Science5 (6(1)).

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Statistics Division World Tourism Organization Commission of the European Communities Eurostat Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2008. Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework= (Luxembourg, Madrid, New York, Paris: United Nations Publication). <> (accessed in June 2016).

United Nations Environmental Programme – unep. 2007. Melting icea hot topic? 2007 world environment day global activity report. <> (accessed on April 24 2016).

United Nations World Tourism Organization (unwto) United Nations Environment Programme (unep) World Meteorological Organization (wmo) World Economic Forum (wef). 2007. Davos Declaration. Climate change and tourism responding to global challenges Davos. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).

United Nations Environment Programme and World Tourism Organization 2012. Tourism in the Green EconomyBackground Report (Madrid: unwto).

Vittuari M. Bilali H. Berjan S. 2012. “Territorial Governance in Rural Bosnia: The Role of Local Institutions and Organizations in Sarajevo – Romanija RegionJournal of Central European Agriculture13(1): 131141.

World Bank. 2007. Consultations with Civil Society. A sourcebook working document (Washington dc: World Bank).

World Trade Organization (wto). 2006. Trade foreign policy diplomacy and health Civil society. <> (accessed on January 19 2006).

World Wild Life (wwf). 2010. Science – Payment for Ecosystem Services. <> (accessed on February 25 2014).


  • View in gallery

    Interviews with farmers providing different services to visitors. A new role for farmers – Key concepts.

  • View in gallery

    Interviews with local administrations. Local governance: commitment towards the local community.

  • View in gallery

    Interviews with representatives of associations and networks. The role of networks, the social capital.

  • View in gallery

    Interviews with local handcrafts producers. Rural non-farm entrepreneurs.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 14 14 6
Full Text Views 5 5 5
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0