In this article, after a brief introduction related to the present environment, Ambassador Orhun discusses human rights, mutual respect and dialogue, leading to an evaluation of intolerance and discrimination against Muslims. He finds that the environment in which Muslims live in Western countries has deteriorated considerably in the post September 11 period. He then provides an overview of his experience as OSCE's Personal Representative on Combating Intolerance and Discrimination against Muslims. After sharing his views on ways to promote tolerance and combat discrimination against Muslims, Ambassador Orhun concludes with his recommendations. He stresses the need to take account of the intellectual front in the fight against intolerance and discrimination and dwells especially on true integration to enable Muslim migrants to feel at home in a cohesive society. He says that the real threat to tolerance and to multi-cultural societies emanates from the extremes of host and migrant groups and cautions vigilance to achieve peaceful co-existence.