A human rights based approach to trafficking in human beings (THB) is often fostered but not applied in practice. Based on the human rights legal framework the state obligations are identified. These obligations, to criminalize THB, to prosecute THB, to protect and assist victims and to address the root causes, are not addressed in an equal way since the main focus of counter trafficking measures focus on the criminalisation and the prosecution. To also address the assistance and protection of victims and the root causes of THB additional measures are required. It is proposed to make the needs of THB-victims leading instead of criminal law interests, and to develop a Victim Assistance and Protection Package (VAPP). The root causes of THB emerge both on the supply side and the demand side. Suggestions are made to improve the situation on both sides with the ultimate aim to prevent THB.