Although the engagement of the Organization for Security and Co-operation (OSCE) with Afghanistan, as an OSCE Asian Partner for Co-operation, is not a new effort, a more structured and focused approach was initiated by the participating States at the Madrid OSCE Ministerial Council in November 2007 and its Decision No. 4/07 (MC Decision No. 4/07). The Ministerial Council Decision identifies the need for OSCE support in three major areas: border security and management, and policing and combating trafficking, with such activities complementing already other national and international efforts. Since then, the implementation of MC Decision No. 4/07 has put OSCE efforts towards Afghanistan on a more systematic basis. With a programme of activities that includes 16 projects, and that aims at the strengthening of border security and management, the facilitation of cross-border co-operation and the enhancement of national law enforcement capacities, the OSCE is well-positioned to strengthen its engagement with Afghanistan. In particular, it can draw on substantial expertise within its existing channels, including its field operations in Central Asia. Although OSCE engagement with Afghanistan remains a challenging task, in particular given the financial constraints of the Organization, the OSCE can continue to build on the solid interaction already established within the Partnership for Co-operation framework.