Leisten“Between Orthodoxy and Exegesis, Some Aspects of Attitudes in the Shari’a Toward Funerary Architecture”Muqarnas7 (1990) p. 12. Leisten’s article provides a succinct summary of the scholarly debate around the issue of commemorative architecture in Islam. For a more extensive discussion see Werner Diem and Marco Schöller The Living and the Dead in Islam: Epitaphs in Context (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2004) 169-293.
See Daniella Talmon-Heller“Graves, Relics, and Sanctuaries, the Evolution of Syrian Sacred Topography”ARAM Periodical19 (2007) pp. 611-618. The permissibility of shrine visitation within Sunnism has been written about quite extensively. For some prior discussions see Oleg Grabar “The Earliest Islamic Commemorative Structures” Ars Orientalis 6 (1966) pp. 7-46; Yūsuf Rāghib “Les premiers monuments funéraires de l’Islam” Annales Islamologiques 9 (1970) pp. 21-36; Christopher Taylor “Reevaluating the Shiʿi Role in the Development of Monumental Islamic Funerary Architecture: The case of Egypt” Muqarnas 9 (1992) pp. 1-10; Thomas Leisten Architektur für Tote (Berlin: 1998); Werner Diem and Marco Schöller The Living and the Dead in Islam: Epitaphs in Context (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2004) 169-293; and most recently Leor Halevi Muḥammad’s Grave. Death Rites and the Making of Islamic Society (New York: 2007).
Ussama MakdisiThe Culture of Sectarianism: Community History and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon. (Berkeley: University of California Press2000): 6-7 and 51-66. Many scholars have addressed this issue including Najwa al-Qattan “Litigants and Neighbors: the Communal Topography of Ottoman Damascus” Comparative Studies in Society and History 44 (2002) pp. 511-533; Philip S. Khoury “Continuity and Change in Syrian Political Life: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries” The American Historical Review 96 (1991) pp. 1374-1395 Bruce Masters Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001.
Ibid. p. 115and table p. 188 where a 10th century hijrī date is given.
Paulo G. Pinto“Pilgrimage, Commodities, and Religious Objectification: The Making of Transnational Shiism between Iran and Syria.”Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East27 (2007): 114.