Abdülhamid and the ʿAlids: Ottoman patronage of “Shi’i” shrines in the Cemetery of Bāb al-Ṣaghīr in Damascus

in Studia Islamica
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Abdülhamid and the ʿAlids: Ottoman patronage of “Shi’i” shrines in the Cemetery of Bāb al-Ṣaghīr in Damascus

in Studia Islamica

References

3

Leisten“Between Orthodoxy and Exegesis, Some Aspects of Attitudes in the Shari’a Toward Funerary Architecture”Muqarnas 7 (1990) p. 12. Leisten’s article provides a succinct summary of the scholarly debate around the issue of commemorative architecture in Islam. For a more extensive discussion see Werner Diem and Marco Schöller The Living and the Dead in Islam: Epitaphs in Context (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2004) 169-293.

4

See Daniella Talmon-Heller“Graves, Relics, and Sanctuaries, the Evolution of Syrian Sacred Topography”ARAM Periodical 19 (2007) pp. 611-618. The permissibility of shrine visitation within Sunnism has been written about quite extensively. For some prior discussions see Oleg Grabar “The Earliest Islamic Commemorative Structures” Ars Orientalis 6 (1966) pp. 7-46; Yūsuf Rāghib “Les premiers monuments funéraires de l’Islam” Annales Islamologiques 9 (1970) pp. 21-36; Christopher Taylor “Reevaluating the Shiʿi Role in the Development of Monumental Islamic Funerary Architecture: The case of Egypt” Muqarnas 9 (1992) pp. 1-10; Thomas Leisten Architektur für Tote (Berlin: 1998); Werner Diem and Marco Schöller The Living and the Dead in Islam: Epitaphs in Context (Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz 2004) 169-293; and most recently Leor Halevi Muḥammad’s Grave. Death Rites and the Making of Islamic Society (New York: 2007).

12

Selim Deringil“The Struggle against Shi’ism in Hamidian Iraq: A Study in Ottoman Counter-Propaganda”Die Welt des Islams 30 (1990) pp. 47 n. 5.

20

Ussama MakdisiThe Culture of Sectarianism: Community History and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon. (Berkeley: University of California Press2000): 6-7 and 51-66. Many scholars have addressed this issue including Najwa al-Qattan “Litigants and Neighbors: the Communal Topography of Ottoman Damascus” Comparative Studies in Society and History 44 (2002) pp. 511-533; Philip S. Khoury “Continuity and Change in Syrian Political Life: The Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries” The American Historical Review 96 (1991) pp. 1374-1395 Bruce Masters Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001.

26

Khaled Moaz and Solange OryInscriptions arabes de Damas: les Stèles funéraires I. Cimetière d’al-Bāb al-Ṣaghīr. (Damascus: Institut Français de Damas1977): 18-20.

28

Moaz and OryInscriptions p. 20.

35

Ibid. pp. 613-616. See also Mulder Shrines.

41

Moaz and OryInscriptions p. 114.

42

Ibid. pp. 114-15.

43

Ibid. p. 115 and table p. 188 where a 10th century hijrī date is given.

45

Paulo G. Pinto“Pilgrimage, Commodities, and Religious Objectification: The Making of Transnational Shiism between Iran and Syria.” Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East 27 (2007): 114.

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Damascus, Cemetery of Bāb al-Ṣaghīr Plan after Moaz and Ory, Inscriptions arabes de Damas: les Stèles funéraires, I. Cimetière d’al-Bāb al-Ṣaghīr. [Damascus: Institut Français de Damas, 1977], pl. II.
  • View in gallery
    View of Ottoman-era shrines in cemetery of Bāb al-Ṣaghīr. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Mausoleum of Sayyida Fiḍḍa, south elevation. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Inscription over door of shrine to ʿAbdallāh b. Umm Maktūm. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Mausoleum of Fāṭima al-Ṣughrā. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Mausoleum of Fāṭima al-Ṣughrā, plan of upper level. Drawing: Author, Milena Hijazi and Irina Rivero.
  • View in gallery
    Mausoleum of Fāṭima al-Ṣughrā, plan of crypt level. Drawing: Author, Milena Hijazi and Irina Rivero.
  • View in gallery
    East and south faces of stone sarcophagus in Mausoleum of Fātima al-Ṣughrā. After Moaz and Ory, Les Stèles funéraires, pl. V.
  • View in gallery
    Exterior, Mausoleum of Abān b. Ruqayya. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Plan, Mausoleum of Abān b. Ruqayya. Drawing: Author, Milena Hijazi and Irina Rivero.
  • View in gallery
    Abān b. Ruqayya, Ottoman-era painted dome with inscriptions praising four Sunni Caliphs. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Abān b. Ruqayya, Ottoman-era painted dome with inscriptions praising al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn. Photo: Author.
  • View in gallery
    Cenotaph, Mausoleum of Abān b. Ruqayya. After Moaz and Ory, Les Stèles funéraires, pl. XXXV.
  • View in gallery
    Stela, Mausoleum of Abān b. Ruqayya. After Moaz and Ory, Les Stèles funéraires, pl. XXXVI B.

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