Allen J. FrankMuslim Religious Institutions in Imperial Russia: The Islamic World of Novouzensk District and the Kazakh Inner Horde 1780-1910LeidenBrill2001 pp. 317-318; Robert D. Crews For Prophet and Tsar: Islam and Empire in Russia and Central Asia Cambridge Mass. Harvard up 2006 p. 22.
FrankMuslim Religious Institutions p. 261. Similarly Russian and Soviet scholars asserted pre-Islamic origins for sufi practices not firmly grounded in scripture; see Devin DeWeese “Shamanization in Central Asia” jesho 57/3 (2014) pp. 326-63.
See Matthew Melvin-Koushki“Persianate Geomancy from Ṭūsī to the Millennium: A Preliminary Survey” in Occult Sciences in Premodern Islamic Cultureed. Nader El-Bizri and Eva Orthmann Beirut Orient-Institut Beirut (forthcoming).
Steven M. Wasserstrom“Sefer Yeṣira and Early Islam: A Reappraisal”Journal of Jewish Thought and Philosophy3 (1993) pp. 1-30; Michael Ebstein Mysticism and Philosophy in al-Andalus: Ibn Masarra Ibn al-ʿArabī and the Ismāʿīlī Tradition Leiden Brill 2014.
Orkhan Mir-Kasimov“Conflicting Synergy of Patterns of Religious Authority in Islam” in Unity in Diversity: Mysticism Messianism and the Construction of Religious Authority in Islamed. Orkhan Mir-Kasimov Leiden Brill 2014 pp. 11-13. The case for sociopolitical continuity rather than rupture into the Mongol and post-Mongol period can just as easily be made—caliphal sultanic and jurisprudential models certainly remained operative in many cases though considerably transformed with the political influence of religious scholars in particular burgeoning to an unprecedented extent. As this does little to explain the sudden and explosive ascent of walāya to hegemonic status in political religious and philosophical discourses throughout the Persianate world however for our purposes here it seems preferable to emphasize those rupturous factors that made possible the very different forms of post-Mongol Islamicate imperialism.
Gardiner“Esotericism” pp. 281-293; Jean-Charles Coulon “Magie et politique: événements historiques et pensée politique dans le Šams al-maʿārif attribué à al-Būnī (mort en 622/1225)” in Islamicate Occultism ed. Melvin-Koushki and Gardiner (forthcoming).
Melvin-Koushki“The Quest” pp. 69-77. This confessional ambiguity is termed Alid loyalism by Marshall Hodgson and Twelver Sunnism (tasannun-i is̱nā-ʿasharī/davāzdah imāmī) by Muḥammad Taqī Dānishpazhūh and Rasūl Jaʿfariyān.