What is the Scandal of Philosophy?

in International Journal for the Study of Skepticism
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?


The central question of this paper is: what has Kant’s Refutation of Idealism argument proven, if anything? What is the real scandal of philosophy and universal human reason? I argue that Kant’s Refutation argument can only be considered as sound if we assume that his target is what I call ‘metaphysical external-world skepticism’ (rather than traditional ‘epistemological external-world skepticism’). What is in question is not the ‘existence’ of outside things, but their very ‘nature’, that is, the claim that the thing outside us, which appears to us as persistent body in space, exists in itself as a substantia noumenon. Assuming the indirect-realist view that we only immediately know ideas and that their putative objects are known by inference, the metaphysical external-world skeptic doubts that the nature of things outside oneself is mind-independent.

What is the Scandal of Philosophy?

in International Journal for the Study of Skepticism



Allison H. 2004. Kant’s Transcendental Idealism 2nd edition. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Almeida G. 2013. “Kant e Refutação do IdealismoAnalytica 17: 1350.

Aquila R. 1979. “Personal Identity and Kant’s Refutation of IdealismKant-Studien 70: 25778.

Bader R.M. 2012. “The Role of Kant’s Refutation of IdealismArchiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 94: 5373.

Bardon A. 2006. “The Aristotelian Prescription: Skepticism, Retortion, and Transcendental ArgumentsInternational Philosophical Quarterly 46: 263276.

Bennett J. 1966. Kant’s Analytic. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Caranti L. 2007. Kant and the Scandal of Philosophy: The Kantian Critique of Cartesian Scepticism. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Chignell A. 2010. “Causal Refutation of IdealismThe Philosophical Quarterly 61: 184186.

Descartes R. 1981. Oeuvres . Edited by Adam C. and Tannery P. . Paris: Vrin.

Dicker G. 2004. Kant’s Theory of Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dicker G. 2008. “Kant’s Refutation of IdealismNoûs 42: 80108.

Dretske F. 1971. “Conclusive ReasonsAustralasian Journal of Philosophy 49: 122.

Erdmann B. 1973. Kant’s Kriticismus in der ersten und in der zweiten Auflage der “Kritik der reinen Vernunft”: Eine historische Untersuchung . Hildesheim: Verlag, Dr. H.A. Gerstenberg.

Feder J. and Garver C. . 1989. “Die Göttinger Rezension.” In Kant I. Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können192200. Stuttgart: Reclam.

Fine K. 2012. “Guide to Ground.” In Correia F. & Schnieder B. (eds.) Metaphysical Grounding3780 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guyer P. 1987. Kant and the Claims of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Guyer P. 2006. Kant. City: Routledge.

Hanna R. 2000. “The Inner and the Outer: Kant’s ‘Refutation’ ReconstructedRatio 13: 146174.

Hanna R. 2001. Kant and the Foundations of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hanna R. 2006. Kant Science and Human Nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jacobi F.H. 1785. David Hume über den Glauben oder Idealismus und Realismus ein Gespräch . City: Löwe.

Jacobi F.H. 1994. “On Transcendental Idealism.” Supplement to David Hume on Faith or Idealism and Realism a Dialogue . In di Giovanni G. (ed. and trans.) The Main Philosophical Writings and the Novel Allwill. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Langton R. 1998. Kantian Humility: Our Ignorance of Things in Themselves. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Longuenesse B. 2008. “Kant’s ‘I think’ versus Descartes’ ‘I am a Thing that Thinks’.” In Garber D. & Longuenesse B. (eds.) Kant and the Early Moderns . Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Mendelssohn M. 1929. Gesammelte Schriften. Jubiläumsausgabe . Berlin: Akademie Verlag.

Moore G.E. 1993. “Proof of an External World.” In G.E. Moore: Selected Writings147170.

Moore G.E. 1993. “The Refutation of Idealism.” In G. E. Moore: Selected Writings2344.

Nozick R. 1981. Philosophical Investigations. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Paton H.J. 1970. Kant’s Metaphysic of Experience . London: George Allen & Unwin.

Prauss G. 1974. Kant und das Problem der Dinge an Sich . Bonn: Bouvier.

Pritchard H.A. 1909. Kant’s Theory of Knowledge . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Russell B. 1967. The Problems of Philosophy . Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sidgwick H. 1907. The Methods of Ethics . 7th edition. London: Macmillan.

Smith N.K. 1923. A Commentary to Kant’s “Critique of Pure Reason . 2nd edition. London: Macmillan.

Strawson P.F. 1966. The Bounds of Sense: An Essay on Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. London: Methuen.

Stroud B. 1984. The Significance of Philosophical Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Stroud B. 1999. “Skepticism, ‘Externalism’, and the Goal of Inquiry.” In DeRose K. & Warfield T. (eds.) Skepticism: A Contemporary Reader. Oxford University.

Vaihinger H. 1883. Commentar zu Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft . 2 vols. Stuttgart, Berlin, Leipzig: Union deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft.

Vaihinger H. 1884. “Zu Kants Widerlegung des Idealismus.” In Straßburger Abhandlungen zur Philosophie. Eduard Zeller zu seinem 70. Geburtstage85164. Freiburg.

Van Cleve J. 2010. Problems from Kant. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vogel J. 1993. “The Problem of Self-Knowledge in Kant’s ‘Refutation of Idealism’Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53: 87587.

Westphal K. 2004. Kant’s Transcendental Proof of Realism. Cambridge University Press.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 32 32 31
Full Text Views 14 14 14
PDF Downloads 2 2 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0