Practical Work at School Reduces Disgust and Fear of Unpopular Animals

in Society & Animals
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

Disgust and fear are basic emotions that protect humans against pathogens and/or predators. Natural selection favored individuals who successfully escaped or avoided harmful animals; thus animals who pose a disease threat activate aversive responses in humans. However, all these animals who are generally disliked have rights to their own existence and play important roles in ecosystems. Here, we used three unpopular live animals (wood louse, snail, and mouse) in practical biology work with 11-13-year-old children (experimental group). The control group had no opportunity to work with animals. Reported disgust and fear of these animals significantly decreased during the study in the experimental group but not in the control group. This study experimentally supports the idea that attitudes toward animals are positively influenced by physical contact with them.

Practical Work at School Reduces Disgust and Fear of Unpopular Animals

in Society & Animals

Sections

References

AlsopS.WattsM. Science education and affect International Journal of Science Education 2003 25 9 1043 1047

ArrindellW. A. Phobic dimensions: IV. The structure of animal fears Behavior Research & Therapy 2000 38 5 509 530

AscioneF. R. Enhancing children’s attitudes about the humane treatment of animals—generalization to human-directed empathy Anthrozoös 1992 5 3 176 191

AscioneF. R.WeberC. V. Children’s attitudes about the humane treatment of animals and empathy: One-year follow up of a school-based intervention Anthrozoös 1996 9 4 188 195

BeckA. M.MelsonG. F.da CostaP. L.LiuT. The educational benefits of a ten-week home-based wild bird feeding program for children Anthrozoös 2001 14 1 19 28

BjerkeT.ØstdahlT.KleivenJ. Attitudes and activities related to urban wildlife: Pet owners and non-owners Anthrozoös 2003 16 3 252 262

BognerF. X. Empirical evaluation of an educational conservation programme introduced in Swiss secondary schools International Journal of Science Education 1999 21 11 1169 1185

BraunM.BuyerR.RandlerC. Cognitive and emotional evaluation of two educational outdoor programs dealing with non-native bird species International Journal of Environmental & Science Education 2010 5 2 151 168

CurtisV.AungerR.RabieT. Evidence that disgust evolved to protect from risk of disease Biology Letters 2004 272 S131 S133

CurtisV.BiranA. Dirt, disgust, and disease: Is hygiene in our genes? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 2001 44 1 17 31

DalyB.SuggsS. Teachers’ experiences with humane education and animals in the elementary classroom: implications for empathy development Journal of Moral Education 2010 39 1 101 112

DaveyG. C. L.McDonaldA. S.HirisaveU.PrabhuG. G.IwawakiS.JimC. I.MerckelbachH.de JongP. J.LejnyP. W. L.ReimannL. A cross-cultural study of animal fears Behaviour Research and Therapy 1998 36 7-8 735 750

DavisH.BalfourD. The inevitable bond: Examining scientist-animal interaction 1992 Cambridge, England Cambridge University Press

EdmundsM. Defence in animals: A survey of anti-predator defences 1974 London Longman

EricssonG.HeberleinT. A. Attitudes of hunters, locals, and the general public in Sweden now that the wolves are back Biological Conservation 2003 111 2 149 159

Gläser-ZikudaM.FußS.LaukenmannM.MetzK.RandlerC. Promoting students’ emotions and achievement—Instructional design and evaluation of the ECOLE approach Learning & Instruction 2005 15 5 481 495

HaidtJ.McCauleyM.RozinP. Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors Personality and Individual Differences 1994 16 5 701 713

HawkeyR. Walking with woodlice: An experiment in biodiversity education Journal of Biological Education 2001 36 1 11 15

HergovichA.MonshiB.SemmlerG.ZieglmayerV. The effects of the presence of a dog in the classroom Anthrozoös 2002 15 1 37 50

HerzogH.BurghardtG. M. Attitudes toward animals: Origins and diversity Anthrozoös 1988 1 4 214 222

HolstermannN.GrubeD.BögeholzS. The influence of emotion on students’ performance in dissection exercises Journal of Biological Education 2009 43 4 164 168

HubertyC. J. A history of effect sizes indices Educational and Psychological Measurement 2002 62 2 227 240

HummelE.RandlerC. Experiments with living animals—effects on learning success, experimental competency and emotions Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 2010 2 3823 3830

IozziL. A. What research says to the educator. Part one: Environmental education and the affective domain Journal of Environmental Education 1989 20 3 3 9

KaltenbornB. P.BjerkeT.NyahongoJ. Living with problem animals: Self-reported fear of potentially dangerous species in the Serengeti region, Tanzania Human Dimensions of Wildlife 2006 11 6 397 409

KeevesJ. P. FraserB. J.TobinK. G. Methods and processes in research in science International Handbook of Science Education 1998 Part Two Dordrecht, Netherlands Kluwer Academic Publishers 1127 1153

KillermannW. Biology education in Germany: Research into the effectiveness of different teaching methods International Journal of Science Education 1996 18 3 333 346

KindtM.BrosschotJ. F.MurisP. Spider Phobia Questionnaire for Children (SPQ-C): A psychometric study and normative data Behavior Research and Therapy 1996 34 3 277 282

Martín-LópezB.MontesC.BenayasJ. The non-economic motives behind the willingness to pay for biodiversity conservation Biological Conservation 2007 139 1-2 67 82

MeerburgB. G.SingletonG. R.KijlstraA. Rodent-borne diseases and their risks for public health Critical Reviews in Microbiology 2009 35 3 221 270

MorganJ. M.GramannJ. H. Predicting effectiveness of wildlife education programs: A study of students’ attitudes and knowledge toward snakes Wildlife Society Bulletin 1989 17 4 501 509

NavarreteC. D.FesslerD. M. T.EngS. J. Elevated ethnocentrism in the first trimester of pregnancy Evolution and Human Behavior 2007 28 1 60 65

OatenM.StevensonR. J.CaseT. I. Disgust as a disease-avoidance mechanism Psychological Bulletin 2009 135 2 303 321

ÖhmanA.MinekaS. Fear, phobias and preparedness: Towards an evolved module of fear and fear learning Psychological Review 2001 108 3 483 522

ProkopP.FančovičováJ. The association between disgust, danger and fear of macroparasites and human behaviour Acta Ethologica 2010 13 1 57 62

ProkopP.FančovičováJ.KubiatkoM. Vampires are still alive: Slovakian students’ attitudes toward bats Anthrozoös 2009 22 1 19 30

ProkopP.ÖzelM.UşakM. Cross-cultural comparison of student attitudes toward snakes Society & Animals 2009 17 3 224 240

ProkopP.TunnicliffeS. D. Effects of keeping pets on children’s attitudes toward popular and unpopular animals Anthrozoös 2010 23 1 21 35

ProkopP.FančovičováJ.FedorP. Health is associated with anti-parasite behavior and fear of disease-relevant animals in humans Ecological Psychology 2010 22 3 222 237

ProkopP.UşakM.FančovičováJ. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals Behavioural Processes 2010a 85 1 52 57

ProkopP.UşakM.FančovičováJ. Health and the avoidance of macroparasites: A preliminary cross-cultural study Journal of Ethology 2010b 28 2 345 351

RandlerC.BognerF. Comparing methods of instruction using bird species identification skills as indicators Journal of Biological Education 2002 36 4 181 188

RandlerC.BognerF. Cognitive achievements in identification skills Journal of Biological Education 2006 40 4 161 165

RandlerC.BognerF. Efficacy of two different instructional methods involving complex ecological content International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 2009 7 2 315 337

RandlerC.IlgA.KernJ. Cognitive and emotional evaluation of an amphibian conservation program for elementary school students Journal of Environmental Education 2005 37 1 43 52

RøskaftE.HändelB.BjerkeT.KaltenbornB. P. Human attitudes towards large carnivores in Norway Wildlife Biology 2007 13 2 172 185

RozinP.HaidtJ.McCauleyC. LewisM.HavilandJ. M. Disgust Handbook of emotions 2000 2nd ed. New York Guilford Press 637 653

SchallerM.DuncanL. A. ForgasJ. P.HaseltonM. G.von HippelW. The behavioral immune system: Its evolution and social psychological implications Evolution and the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and social cognition 2007 New York Psychology Press 293 307

SeligmanM. E. P. Phobias and preparedness Behavior Therapy 1971 2 3 307 320

SerpellJ. A. Factors influencing human attitudes to animals and their welfare Animal Welfare 2004 13 S145 S151

ShapiroK. The pedagogy of learning and unlearning empathy Phenomenology and Pedagogy 1990 8 1 43 48

ShilohS.SorekG.TerkelJ. Reduction of state-anxiety by petting animals in a controlled laboratory experiment Anxiety Stress & Coping 2003 16 4 387 395

StevensonR. J.CaseT. I.OatenM. J. Frequency and recency of infection and their relationship with disgust and contamination sensitivity Evolution and Human Behavior 2009 30 5 363 368

TrevesA.JurewiczR. R.Naughton-TrevesL. Wolf depredation on domestic animals in Wisconsin, 1976-2000 Wildlife Society Bulletin 2002 30 1 231 241

TyburJ. M.LiebermanD.GriskeviciusV. Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 2009 97 1 103 122

VittersoJ.KaltenbornB. P.BjerkeT. Attachment to livestock and attitudes toward large carnivores among sheep farmers in Norway Anthrozoös 1998 11 4 210 217

WeatherillA. Pet at school: Child-animal bond sparks learning and caring Inter Actions 1993 11 1 7 9

Figures

  • View in gallery
    Differences in disgust/fear before and after the experiment in the experimental and control groups.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 79 79 38
Full Text Views 86 86 61
PDF Downloads 6 6 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0